The Second Industrial Revolution for AP European History (page 3)
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During the eighteenth century, the development of a more diverse economy propelled by a system of rural manufacturing (sometimes referred to as the First Industrial Revolution) radically increased the demand for manufactured goods. In response, nineteenth-century entrepreneurs and inventors created a new, more mechanized system of production, known as the factory system. This new system of production, coupled with the introduction of new sources of power, produced a Second Industrial Revolution. This second phase of industrialization, lasting from roughly 1820 to 1900, was characterized by the advent of large-scale iron and steel production, the application of the steam engine, and the development of a railway system. The Second Industrial Revolution transformed almost every aspect of European life in the nineteenth century.
The Factory System and the Division of Labor
The factory system was created in order to better supervise labor. In the old, rural manufacturing system (or cottage industry) that characterized the First Industrial Revolution, peasants were left on their own to work at the spinning wheel or the loom. Both the quality and the efficiency of their work depended on factors that were beyond the entrepreneur's control. In contrast, under the factory system, workers came to a central location and worked with the machines under the supervision of managers.
The factory system employed a technique that has come to be known as the division of labor, whereby formerly complex tasks that required knowledge and skill were broken down into a series of simple tasks, aided by machines. The division of labor had several simultaneous effects:
- It replaced skilled craftsmen with unskilled labor, thereby increasing the supply of labor and decreasing the wages that needed to be paid.
- It increased the volume that manufacturers could produce, thereby allowing them to sell products for less and still increase profits.
- It initially drew more women and children into the workforce.
- As machines did more and more of the work, it decreased the number of workers needed, creating unemployment and competition for jobs.
Iron and Steel
The nineteenth-century iron and steel industry helped to drive the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century. The new machines of the textile industry created increased demand for the iron from which they were partly constructed. New, larger armies demanded more iron for guns, cannon, and ammunition. The growing population required even more iron for nails and tools.
Traditionally, the fuel for the iron smelting process was charcoal, which came from wood. By the eighteenth century, dwindling forests were limiting charcoal supply and steel was being smelted in blast furnaces, using coal as the fuel. In the 1850s, Henry Bessemer, an English engineer, discovered a way to manufacture steel more cheaply and in larger quantities. The use of the Bessemer process (as it came to be called), together with the use of the steam engine to power smelting furnaces, increased the supply of iron and steel to the point at which it could meet the ever-growing demand. In 1860, Great Britain, France, Germany, and Belgium produced approximately 125,000 tons of steel. By 1913, they produced nearly 32 million tons.
New Sources of Power
Coal mines provided the most important fuel of the Industrial Revolution. Initially, coal was used to heat homes and to fuel the blast furnaces of the expanding iron and steel industry. Later, demand increased even further as steam engines devoured enormous quantities of coal for fuel. Wherever there were natural deposits of coal, huge mining industries grew up around them; agricultural production in these areas was largely abandoned, and the peasants were drawn by the thousands to subterranean work in the mines.
The perfection of the steam engine increased both the scale and the pace of heavy industry by replacing human muscle and hydropower. The steam engine was first used in the early eighteenth century to pump water out of coal mines. It was perfected and made more efficient by Thomas Newcomen and James Watt. The improved version was used to drive machinery as diverse as the bellows of iron forges, looms for textile manufacture, and mills for grain. The shift to steam power allowed entrepreneurs to relocate their mills away from water sources. During the 1820s, entrepreneurs began to exploit the potential of the steam engine as a source of locomotive power. It was first used in the 1820s to power ships. In the 1830s, it was adapted to power railway locomotives.
Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the Second Industrial Revolution received another boost from the widespread application of electrical power. More versatile and more easily transported than steam engines, electrical generators were used to power a wide variety of small- and large-scale factories and mills. By 1881, the first large-scale public power plant was constructed in Britain and, in the next two decades, plants were built and lines were run to illuminate houses across Europe.
Petroleum and the Internal Combustion Engine
In 1886, two German engineers, Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz, perfected the internal combustion engine, which burned petroleum as fuel, and mounted it on a carriage to create the automobile. The early German automobiles were luxury items, but in 1908 the American Henry Ford produced the "Model T," an automobile for the common man, and he mass produced it, creating yet another large factory-based industry. The internal combustion engine, along with its cousin the diesel engine, made transportation and travel cheaper and therefore more widely available.
The Railway Boom
In the 1820s, the British inventor George Stephenson developed a railway line with trains pulled by steam-powered locomotives. The Stockton and Darlington Line opened in 1825, and another major line went from Liverpool to Manchester by 1830. The speed and reliability of the new locomotives made them a huge success and began what would come to be known as the railway boom of the 1830s and 1840s, as Britain's competitors quickly developed their own systems. The development of railway systems further spurred the development of heavy industries, as railroads facilitated the speedy transportation of iron and steel while simultaneously consuming large quantities of both.
The Reciprocal Nature of Heavy Industry
The four major components of the Second Industrial Revolution—the iron and steel industry, the coal industry, steam power, and the railways—had a reciprocal effect on one another:
- The iron and steel industry required improvements in the steam engine to run its blast furnaces, greater amounts of coal to fuel the engines, and railways to transport both the coal and the smelted iron and steel.
- The coal industry required more and improved steam engines to pump water out of the mines and to power digging machinery; it also required railways to transport the coal.
- The steam power industry required iron and steel to forge the engines, coal to run them, and railways to transport them.
- The railways required huge amounts of steel and iron for the construction of the engines, cars, and tracks, steam engines to drive the locomotives, and coal to fuel the engines.
Working together, these four industries created an ever-increasing cycle of supply and demand that drove the Second Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century.
The Spread of Industrialization
The process of industrialization varied greatly across Europe. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and spread eastward across the continent of Europe.
Great Britain Industrializes First
Great Britain had several natural advantages that help to explain why it was first and why it held the lead for more than a century:
- It had a well-developed commercial economy that created a merchant class with capital to invest.
- Britain's extensive river system was ideal for transporting goods throughout the country.
- The country was rich in coal and iron deposits, two key components of the Second Industrial Revolution.
- Unlike much of Europe, Great Britain had no internal tariffs to inhibit trade.
- It had a uniform and stable monetary system and a national banking system.
Industrialization Spread Eastward from Britain
As the Industrial Revolution spread to the Continent, it moved eastward in a way that can be described by three generalizations:
- The further east it went, the later the process began; for example, France industrialized later than Britain, Germany later than France, and Russia last.
- The further east it went, the faster the process occurred (because innovations could be copied or purchased, rather than invented and developed); for example, France industrialized at a faster pace than Britain, Germany faster still, and Russia fastest of all.
- The further east it went, the more the government was involved (because governments feared the political and military effects of falling behind their rivals, they invested heavily in industrialization); for example, there was no government involvement in the industrialization of Britain, some in France, more in Germany, and in Russia industrialization was almost totally government driven.
Russia Lags Behind
By 1850, large-scale industrialization had spread to northeastern France, Belgium, the northern German states, and northwestern Italy. The southern, central, and eastern areas of Europe—such as Italy, Poland, and Russia—lagged behind due to insufficient natural resources and the lack of a commercialized agricultural system to allow for a mobile workforce. These areas retained their rural character.
Russia lagged behind until two successive tsars—Alexander III (1881–1894) and Nicholas II (1894–1917)—determined that Russia should become an industrial power. In 1892, Alexander III appointed Serge Witte as finance minister. Under Witte's leadership, Russia became an iron- and steel-producing nation. By the end of the nineteenth century, factories had arisen in Moscow and St Petersburg. By 1904, the construction of a trans-Siberian railroad that linked the European portion of Russia with the East was nearly completed.
The Second Industrial Revolution transformed European society in significant ways:
- Urbanization increased rapidly, as the population moved into hastily built housing in cities to be nearer to the factories.
- Families were separated as the place of work shifted from the home to factories.
- Work lost its seasonal quality, as workers were required to follow a routine schedule.
- The pace of work, driven by machines, increased dramatically.
- The overall health of the workforce declined because of the harsh and unhealthy conditions of the factories.
- The availability of work became unpredictable as it rose and fell with the demand for goods.
- Gradually, women who had first been drawn into cities to work in the factories lost their manufacturing jobs as machines decreased the demand for labor; cut off from their families, many had no other option than prostitution.
- Artisans and craftsmen lost their livelihoods, unable to compete with the lower cost of mass-produced goods.
- The traditional impediment to marriage, which was the need for land, disappeared and people began to marry younger.
- A much greater portion of the population could afford factory-made goods.
- There was further change in the class structure as industrialization created both a class of newly wealthy industrialists and a precariously situated lower middle class of managers and clerks.
- Close working and living conditions produced a sense of class consciousness among the working class.
Artistic Movements in the Industrial Age
Artistic expression in the industrial age was dominated by three styles: realism, impressionism, and postimpressionism.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, young painters rejected both the romantic fantasies and the glorification of the past that had interested their predecessors. The realists sought instead to accurately and honestly render the life around them in meticulous detail. A primary example of the realist movement is the work of Gustav Courbet. In his Burial at Ornans (1849–1850), for example, Courbet depicted the members of a small village burying one of its community members without trying to convey any particular emotion or moral message.
By the late nineteenth century, realism gave way to the impressionist movement. The impressionists desired to render not the reality of the scene but the reality of the visual experience. The visual experience, the impressionists believed, consisted of the interaction between light, color, and human perception. Accordingly, they created images that evoked the visual experience by painting with visible brush strokes and heightened color. Édouard Manet's Impressionisme soleil levant, or Impressionism, Sunrise (1872), is often cited as the work that gave impressionism its name. Other influential impressionist painters of the period were Pierre Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet.
After about a decade, a new generation of painters began to reject the limitations imposed by the impressionist movement. The result was a movement often known as postimpressionism, which combined the visible brush strokes, heightened color, and real-life subject matter of impressionism with an emphasis on geometric form and unnatural color to create a more emotionally expressive effect. Perhaps the most famous example of postimpressionist painting is Vincent van Gogh's Starry Night (1889). Other influential postimpressionist painters of the late nineteenth century include Georges Seurat, Mary Cassatt, Paul Gauguin, and Paul Cézanne.
Science in the Industrial Age
Advances in gas theory and a spirit of scientific realism dominated the physical sciences in the nineteenth century. Physicists in this period concentrated on providing a scientific understanding of the processes that drove the engines of the Industrial Revolution. In the middle of the nineteenth century, physicists such as the German Rudolph Clausius and the Scotsman James Maxwell developed the kinetic theory of gases. Their theory envisioned gas pressure and temperature as resulting from a certain volume of molecules in motion. Such an approach allowed them to analyze, and therefore to measure and predict, pressure and temperature statistically. Later in the century, physicists such as Robert Mayer, Hermann von Helmholtz, and William Thompson pursued this kind of statistical analysis to articulate the laws of thermodynamics.
The success of the "matter in motion" models in physics created a wider philosophical movement that argued that all natural phenomena could and should be understood as the result of matter and motion. The movement, known as materialism, was first articulated by a trinity of German natural philosophers: Karl Vogt, Jakob Moleschott, and Ludwig Büchner. By the end of the nineteenth century, materialism had become a foundational assumption of the scientific view of the world.
The natural sciences in the nineteenth century were dominated by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. As a young man, Darwin had sailed around the globe as the naturalist for the H.M.S. Beagle. During the Beagle's five-year voyage, commencing 27 December 1831 and ending 2 October 1836, Darwin collected specimens for shipment home to England and made observations on the flora and fauna of the many continents he explored. Twenty-three years later, he published a book titled On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In Origin, Darwin offered an explanation to the two questions at the heart of nineteenth-century natural science: why was there so much diversity among living organisms, and why did organisms seem to "fit" into the environments in which they lived? Darwin's answer, unlike earlier answers that referred to God's will and a process of creation, was materialist in nature. He argued that both the wide range of diversity and the environmental "fit" of living organisms to their environment were due to a process that he termed "natural selection." The fact that many more organisms were born than could survive led, Darwin explained, to a constant "struggle for existence" between individual living organisms. Only those individuals that survived the struggle passed their physical characteristics on to their offspring. Over millions of years, that simple process had caused populations of organisms to evolve in ways that produced both the amazing diversity and the environmental "fit."
Origin went through six editions, and Darwin's theory became the central organizing principle of the science of biology, which developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 1871 Darwin published The Descent of Man, which explained Darwin's views on how human beings had come into being through the process of natural selection.
Between 1820 and 1900, the demand for goods on the part of a steadily increasing population was met by entrepreneurs who created the factory system. The new system standardized and increased industrial production. As the century went on, the development of four interrelated heavy industries—iron and steel, coal mining, steam power, and railroads—combined to drive Europe's economy to unprecedented heights, constituting a Second Industrial Revolution. The urbanization, standardization of work, and effects of the class system wrought by the Second Industrial Revolution significantly transformed social life in Europe.
The changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution provoked new developments in both the arts and sciences. In the arts, the three related styles of realism, impressionism, and postimpressionism developed. Progress in the physical sciences manifested itself in the development of the kinetic theory of gases, while the natural sciences were dominated by Charles Darwin's innovative theory of evolution by natural selection.
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