Analytical and Logical Reasoning Practice Set 1 (page 2)
For more practice on analytical and logical reasoning, refer to:
- Analytical and Logical Reasoning Practice Problems Set 1 You are here
- Analytical and Logical Reasoning Practice Problems Set 2
A typical logical reasoning question presents an argument and asks you to analyze it. You may be asked to draw further conclusions from the argument, determine what strengthens or weakens the argument, find flaws in the argument, or justify the argument. Success with these types of questions depends on your being able to understand the structure of the argument. Remember that every argument has a point of view. Every argument draws a conclusion and is generally supported with evidence. Study each passage to determine how each sentence contributes to the argument the speaker is trying to make. Then make sure you understand the question that is being asked before you choose from the five answer options.
Answer questions 1 and 2 on the basis of the information below.
According to last week's newspaper, doctors in large cities make more money than doctors in small towns or rural areas. It does not seem fair that just because a doctor's office is in a fancy building or at a fancy address, he or she can charge the patients more. Of course, some medical schools cost more than others, but basically all doctors spend a lot of money and a long time in school. There's no proof that graduates of the more expensive schools practice in big cities and graduates of the less expensive schools practice in small towns. All doctors should charge the same. Whether a patient goes to a doctor in a big city or small town, the cost should be the same.
- A person seeking to refute the argument might argue that
- all doctors charge too much money and should lower their fees.
- medical practices are more expensive to maintain in large cities than in small towns and rural areas.
- doctors who owe student loans should charge more than other doctors.
- medical care from small-town doctors is better than medical care from large-city doctors.
- certain medical specialists should charge more than others.
- A major flaw in the argument is that the speaker assumes that
- all doctors are specialists.
- all patients carry health insurance.
- all doctors have huge student loans.
- all patients take too much time.
- all doctors see the same number of patients.
- Which of the following, if true, would make the speaker's argument stronger?
- There is currently a law that says the government must provide people with documents in their native language.
- Most people in the United States who do not speak English were born here.
- Immigration rates have decreased in recent years.
- Many other countries have an official language.
- Canada has two official languages.
- Which of the following, if true, would make the speaker's argument weaker?
- The government currently translates official documents into more than twenty languages.
- English is the most difficult language in the world to learn.
- Most people who immigrate to the United States learn English within two years of their arrival.
- Making English the official language is a politically unpopular idea.
- People who are bilingual are usually highly educated.
- Which of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?
- Only veterans care about the flag-burning issue.
- Flag burning almost never happens, so outlawing it is a waste of time.
- Flag burning will be a very important issue in the next election.
- To outlaw flag burning is to outlaw what the flag represents.
- Burning the flag should only be illegal when it is done in foreign countries.
- Which of the following, if true, would weaken the speaker's argument?
- An action is not considered a part of freedom of speech.
- People who burn the flag usually commit other crimes as well.
- The flag was not recognized by the government until 1812.
- State flags are almost never burned.
- Most people are against flag burning.
- Which of the following is similar to the argument made by the speaker?
- The rich should not be allowed to "buy" politicians, so the Congress should enact campaign finance reform.
- The idea of freedom of religion also means the right not to participate in religion, so mandated school prayer violates freedom of religion.
- The Constitution guarantees freedom to own property, so taxes should be illegal.
- Convicted felons should not have their convictions overturned on a technicality.
- In order to understand what may be constitutional today, one needs to look at what the laws were when the Constitution was enacted.
Answer questions 3 and 4 on the basis of the information below.
English ought to be the official language of the United States. There is no reason for the government to spend money printing documents in several different languages, just to cater to people who cannot speak English. The government has better ways to spend our money. People who come to this country should learn to speak English right away.
Answer questions 5 through 7 on the basis of the information below.
Some groups want to outlaw burning the flag. They say that people have fought and died for the flag and that citizens of the United States ought to respect that. But I say that respect cannot be legislated. Also, most citizens who have served in the military did not fight for the flag, they fought for what the flag represents. Among the things the flag represents is freedom of speech, which includes, I believe, the right for a citizen to express displeasure with the government by burning the flag in protest.
- b. If it is more expensive to run a medical practice in a large city than a small town, it would make sense for doctors to charge more in large cities. Choices a, c, and e are incorrect because the information in these statements is extraneous to the author's argument. Choice d is wrong because it supports, rather than refutes, the author's argument.
- e. The passage states that "doctors in large cities make more money than doctors in small towns or rural areas." The speaker then assumes that if doctors all charge the same, they will all earn the same, but if doctors in large cities see more patients, they will still earn more money.
- a. The argument is based on the idea that the government spends a great deal of money translating documents into different languages. Choices b and e make the argument somewhat weaker. Choice c offers no support for the argument. Choice d may offer some support, but choice a makes the argument much stronger.
- c. If most people learn English within a short period of time, making English the official language is unnecessary.
- d. The speaker maintains that to burn a flag is an act of freedom of speech, which is among the things the flag represents.
- a. If an action is not included under freedom of speech, the speaker's main argument is incorrect.
- b. This is the best choice because it relates to a situation where a proposed law would actually violate the part of the Constitution it is intended to protect.
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