Challenging Logical Reasoning Practice (page 2)
Another type of logical reasoning question presents you with two different speakers talking about the same issue. Sometimes, the speakers' arguments overlap; in other words, they support each other. Sometimes, the speakers are presenting opposing viewpoints. For these items, make sure you understand the conclusion of both speakers before you attempt to answer the questions.
Answer questions 1 and 2 on the basis of the information below.
Frances: Studies show that eating a healthy breakfast improves young children's ability to learn. However, it is not the responsibility of the schools to provide this meal; it is the responsibility of each child's parents.
Lars: Although it would be nice if the schools could provide each child with a healthy breakfast, the cost of doing that takes money away from other, more important learning resources, such as the purchase of new computers. In the long run, children learn more when the schools concentrate on the services they traditionally provide and the parents do what they are supposed to do.
- In what way does Lars's comment relate to Frances's?
- It weakens Frances's argument by changing the focus of the discussion.
- It strengthens Frances's argument by providing support for her premise.
- It states the logical outcome of Frances's views.
- It cannot be true if Frances's assertion about parental responsibility is true.
- It provides an argument that is the opposite of Frances's views.
- What main assumption underlies each statement?
- As teachers become more scarce, schools will have to learn to be more cost-effective in recruiting new teachers.
- In the information age, the equipment schools must purchase for their students is getting more expensive.
- The study about students and breakfast is inconclusive at best, and more studies should be conducted to find out if school breakfasts are healthy.
- Schools have never had the responsibility for supplying students with breakfast; rather, they spend their money on teachers, books, and other tangibles of education.
- Parents are not assuming enough responsibility for their children's education and should become more involved in school issues.
- What is the point at issue between Quinn and Dakota?
- whether sixteen-year-olds should be required to take drivers' education before being issued a license
- whether schools ought to provide drivers' education to fourteen- and fifteen-year-old students
- whether the standards for issuing drivers' licenses should become more stringent
- whether sixteen-year-olds are prepared to drive in today's traffic conditions
- whether parents are able to do a good job teaching their children to drive
- On what does Quinn rely in making her argument?
- On what does Dakota rely in making her argument?
Answer questions 3 through 5 on the basis of the information below.
Quinn: Our state is considering raising the age at which a person can get a driver's license to eighteen. This is unfair because the age has been sixteen for many years and sixteen-year-olds today are no less responsible than their parents and grandparents were at sixteen. Many young people today who are fourteen and fifteen years old are preparing to receive their licenses by driving with a learner's permit and a licensed driver, usually one of their parents. It would not be fair to suddenly say they have to wait two more years.
Dakota: It is true that people have been allowed to receive a driver's license at sixteen for generations. However, in recent years, the increase in traffic means drivers face more dangers than ever and must be ready to respond to a variety of situations. The fact that schools can no longer afford to teach drivers' education results in too many young drivers who are not prepared to face the traffic conditions of today.
- b. Lars provides information that supports Frances's more general statements. Both agree that schools should spend money on educating children, not on providing breakfast. Choices a, d, and eare incorrect because they all imply that Frances and Lars are arguing in opposition to each other. Choice ccan be ruled out because Lars's position does not give any outcomes.
- d. Both speakers rely on the fact that schools do not traditionally have the responsibility for providing students with breakfast.
- d. The speakers support their arguments in different ways, but both are concerned with whether sixteen-year-olds should continue to be allowed to receive drivers' licenses.
- c. Quinn discusses the fairness of changing the law and raising the age at which one can receive a driver's license. Emotion (choice b) may be involved, but the argument relies on the fairness issue.
- e. Dakota discusses the actualities of increased traffic and the decline in the teaching of drivers' education. She doesn't use statistics (choice a). Her argument is not emotion-filled, which rules out choice b. She doesn't mention fairness (choice c) and doesn't tell stories about specific situations (choice d).
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