The Molecular Biology of Eukaryotes Practice Problems
Review the following concepts if needed:
- Genome Size and Complexity for Genetics
- Gene Expression for Genetics
- Regulation of Gene Expression for Genetics
- Development and the Molecular Biology of Eukaryotes for Genetics
- Somatic Nuclear Transfer and Cloning for Genetics
- Organelles and the Molecular Biology of Eukaryotes for Genetics
Vocabulary For each of the following definitions, give the appropriate term and spell it correctly. Terms are single words unless indicated otherwise.
- The analogue in eukaryotes of the bacterial Pribnow box. (Two words.)
- Genes involved in metabolism that tend to be active at all times in all nucleated cells. (Two words.)
- The total complement of proteins in a cell.
- A DNA sequence in cis position with a structural gene that potentiates the transcriptional activity of a gene on that same DNA molecule even though it may be far distant upstream or downstream from the gene it influences.
- A genelike DNA sequence bearing close resemblance to a functional gene at a different locus, but rendered nonfunctional by additions or deletions in its structure that prevent its transcription and/or translation.
- A small protein that, when covalently attached to target proteins, marks them for destruction by proteases.
- The removal of intron sequences from mRNA and coupling of flanking exons.
- Descriptive of mutant genes that cause a normal body part to develop in an abnormal location.
- Programmed cell death.
- The name of a theory that explains the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells.
Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the one best answer.
- Nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are most closely associated with (a) protein-coding genes (b) rRNA genes (c) replication forks (d) cellular differentiation (e) homeoboxes
- Which of the following statements about mitochondria is incorrect? (a) Mitochondrial DNA has a higher mutation rate than nuclear DNA. (b) Replication of mitochondrial DNA is synchronized with that of chromosomal DNA. (c) The size of mitochondrial DNA varies considerably from one species to another. (d) Mitochondria contain a protein-synthesizing system of their own. (e) Mitochondria usually follow a maternal inheritance pattern in species with equalsized gametes.
- Differentiation of most somatic cells does not appear to involve the loss of genes or recombination of DNA segments. The most striking exception to this rule is found in (a) histone genes (b) rDNA (c) mitochondrial DNA (d) immunoglobulin genes (e) hemoglobin genes.
- Which of the following differentiates eukaryotic DNA replication from prokaryotic replication? (a) multiple origins of replication (b) bidirectional replication fork (c) no use of an RNA primer (d) use of only one DNA polymerase (e) none of the above.
- Hormones are thought to regulate gene activity primarily at the level of (a) transcription (b) mRNA processing (c) transport of RNA from nucleus to cytoplasm (d) translation (e) post-translation processing of protein
- Which of the following is not characteristic of most mRNA processing in eukaryotes? (a) addition of a poly-A tail at the 30 end (b) addition of an unusual guanine to the 50 end (c) removal of exons and splicing together of introns (d) removal of leader and trailer sequences (e) more than one of the above
- There are three kinds of RNA polymerases (I, II, III) in eukaryotic cells, each specific for one class of RNA molecule (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA). Which of the following is a correct match? (a) I = rRNA; II = tRNA (b) II = mRNA; III = rRNA (c) I = tRNA; III = rRNA (d) I = rRNA; II = mRNA (e) none of the above
- Apoptosis involves which of the following: (a) chromatin condensation (b) membrane blebbing (c) DNA fragmentation (d) cell dissolution (e) all of the above
- A cell in its final functional state and form is said to be (a) determined (b) transdetermined (c) differentiated (d) activated (e) stabilized
- Which of the following chain combinations could be found in a functional antibody combining site? (a) Llambda HMu (b) Llambda Lkappa (c) Hgamma Halpha (d) more than one of the above (e) none of the above
- Hogness box
- housekeeping genes
- e (c and d)
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