Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology Practice Problems
Review the following concepts if needed:
- History of Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology for Genetics
- Recombinant DNA Technology for Genetics
- DNA Sequencing for Genetics
- Production of Recombinant Gene Products in Industry for Genetics
- Bioinformatics for Genetics
Vocabulary For each of the following definitions, give the appropriate term and spell it correctly. Terms are single words unless indicated otherwise.
- A technique that separates molecules according to their net charge in an electric field, usually on solid or semisolid support media such as paper or agarose.
- Separation of complementary chains of a DNA molecule, usually by heating.
- Reassociation of complementary single-stranded regions of DNA with DNA, or DNA with RNA.
- Exposure of a photographic film to DNA labeled with a radioactive isotope.
- Symmetrical sequences of nucleotide base pairs in double-stranded DNA that read the same on each strand from 5' to 3'.
- Bacterial enzymes that break phosphodiester bonds in DNA at specific base sequences. (Two words.)
- The random collection of a sufficiently large sample of cloned fragments of the DNA of an organism to ensure that all of that organism's DNA is represented in the collection. (Two words.)
- An enzyme used to add deoxyribonucleotides to the 3' ends of DNA chains without a template. (Two or three words.)
- An in vitro technique for copying the complementary strands of a target DNA sequence simultaneously for a series of cycles until the desired amount is obtained. (Three words.)
- The name of the product produced by reverse transcriptase enzyme from an mRNA template. (One or two words.)
Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the one best answer.
- A radioisotope used to label proteins differentially from nucleic acids is (a) 32P (b) 14C (c) 35S (d) 15N
- Which of the following single strands would be part of a palindrome in double-stranded DNA? (a) GAATTC (b) ATGATG (c) CTAATC (d) CCCTTT (e) none of the above
- Which of the following is an enzyme used to form a phosphodiester bond in a nick between a 3' end of one DNA chain and a 5' end of another? (a) DNA polymerase (b) restriction endonuclease (c) DNA ligase (d) S1 nuclease (e) phosphodiesterase
- Bacterial cells are rendered more permeable to uptake of plasmids by treatment with (a) heat (b) calcium chloride (c) alkali (d) a blender (e) ultrasound
- The melting temperature of a DNA molecule is determined by using (a) electrophoresis (b) change in electrical conductivity (c) column chromatography (d) density-gradient ultracentrifugation (e) change in optical density
- Which of the following is a desirable characteristic for a cloning plasmid? (a) a site at which replication can be initiated (b) one or more unique restriction endonuclease sites (c) one or more antibiotic-resistance or drug resistance genes (d) a highly active promoter (e) all of the above
- The classical 1957 experiment of Meselson and Stahl was concerned with (a) mode of DNA replication (b) polymerase chain reaction (c) in vitro production of recombinant DNA molecules (d) synthesis of hybrid proteins (e) transduction via lambda phage
- Many of the genes in lambda phage are clustered according to similarity of function. Which of these gene clusters could most likely be deleted and replaced with foreign DNA, making the recombinant phage a useful cloning vector? (a) nucleases to destroy host DNA (b) head capsomeres (c) phage-specific RNA polymerase (d) establishment and maintenance of lysogeny (e) tail proteins
- Eukaryotic genes may not function properly when cloned into bacteria because of (a) inability to excise introns (b) destruction by native endonucleases (c) failure of promoter to be recognized by bacterial RNA polymerase (d) different ribosome binding sites (e) all of the above
- The DNA fingerprinting process involves (a) chain terminators (b) degenerate oligonucleotides (c) VNTR loci (d) RFLPs (e) cDNA
- denaturation or melting
- renaturation or annealing
- restriction endonucleases
- gene (DNA) library or genomic library
- terminal (deoxyribonucleotidal) transferase
- polymerase chain reaction
- complementary DNA (cDNA)
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