Muscular System Help
Muscles are named according to various features of the muscle.
- Muscle Nomenclature
|Shape||Deltoid (like a triangle)|
|Location||Pectoralis (chest region)|
|Relative position||Lateralis; medialis|
The function (or action) of a muscle is described using the terms below.
|Flexion Decreases||the joint angle|
|Extension||Increases a joint angle|
|Abduction||Movement away from the midline|
|Adduction||Movement toward the midline|
|Elevation||Raises a body structure|
|Depression||Lowers a body structure|
|Rotation||Turns a bone around its longitudinal axis|
|Supination||Rotates the forearm so palm faces anteriorly|
|Pronation||Rotates the forearm so palm faces posteriorly|
|Inversion||Turns the sole inward|
|Eversion||Turns the sole outward|
Muscles of the Axial Skeleton
The muscles of the axial skeleton include those used in facial expression (not discussed here), mastication, neck movement, and respiration; those that act on the abdominal wall and those that move the vertebral column.
The muscles of mastication that close the jaw are the:
The muscles of neck movement include:
The muscles of the abdominal wall all function to compress the abdomen, some act in lateral rotation and flexing the vertebral column.
The muscles of the vertebral column include a group of muscles collectively called the erector spinae muscles. These muscles are longitudinally directed muscles that function to extend the vertebral column.
Muscles of the Appendicular Skeleton
The muscles of the appendicular skeleton include those of the pectoral girdle, brachium (arm), antebrachium (forearm), manus (hand), thigh, leg, and pes (foot).
The muscles of the pectoral girdle attach the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton and are involved in movements of the scapula.
The muscles that move the humerus at the shoulder joint function to flex, extend, rotate, abduct or adduct the humerus. The function of each muscle can be determined by the origin, insertion of each muscle.
The ventral muscles that act on the antebrachium (forearm) function to flex the elbow; the dorsal muscles function to extend the elbow.
There are numerous muscles that act on the wrist, hand, and fingers. They can be divided into three general groups:
- Pronators and Supinators, function to pronate or supinate the forearm;
- Flexors, flex the wrist and digits; and
- Extensors, extend the wrist and digits.
The pronator and all the flexors arise from the medial epicondyle of the humerus; the supinator and extensors all originate from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
The anterior muscles that move the thigh at the hip all function to flex and laterally rotate the hip. The posterior muscles extend, abduct, and some medially rotate the hip.
The medial muscles that move the thigh at the hip all function to adduct the thigh.
The muscles of the thigh that move the leg are divided into an anterior group that primarily function to extend the leg at the knee (the exception is sartorius, which flexes the leg and thigh), and a posterior group (the hamstrings) that functions to extend the thigh at the hip and flex the leg at the knee.
The muscles of the leg that move the ankle, foot, and toes are separated into (1) an anterior group (including tibialis anterior) that dorsiflexes the foot and extends the digits, (2) a lateral group (the peroneal muscles) that aid in dorsiflexion and eversion, and (3) a posterior group (including gastrocnemius and soleus) that plantar flexes the foot and flexes the toes. Only a few are described here.
Practice problems for these concepts can be found at:
- Kindergarten Sight Words List
- First Grade Sight Words List
- 10 Fun Activities for Children with Autism
- Grammar Lesson: Complete and Simple Predicates
- Definitions of Social Studies
- Child Development Theories
- Signs Your Child Might Have Asperger's Syndrome
- How to Practice Preschool Letter and Name Writing
- Social Cognitive Theory
- Theories of Learning