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Napoleonic Europe and the Post-Napoleonic Era Review Questions for AP European History (page 2)

By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011

Answers and Explanations

  1. B.   The Napoleonic Code continued and codified the abolishment of the traditional privileges and prerogatives of the nobility begun during the revolution. The other four choices are incorrect because they were all principles upheld by the Napoleonic Code.
  2. D.   The Concordat of 1801, signed by Napoleon and the pope, reconciled France to the Roman Church by stipulating that the clergy would be chosen and paid by the state but consecrated by the pope. Choice A is incorrect because the temporary peace between France and Russia was created by the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807. Choice B is incorrect because Napoleon was made "consul for life" in 1802 (not 1801). Choice C is incorrect because Napoleon had himself crowned Emperor of France in 1804 (again, not in 1801). Choice E is incorrect because it was the Continental System, not the Concordat of 1801, that forbade areas controlled by Napoleon from trading with Great Britain.
  3. A.   On 21 October 1805, a British naval fleet under the command of Lord Nelson defeated the combined fleets of France and Spain, thereby securing supremacy of the seas and making Britain essentially unconquerable. Choice B is incorrect because Napoleon's Grand Army was destroyed while retreating from Moscow in the winter of 1812. Choice C is incorrect because Napoleon's control of Germany was accomplished by his victory at Jena in October of 1806. Choice D is incorrect because it was a victory at Friedland in June of 1807 that forced the Russians to sign the Treaty of Tilsit a month later. Choice E is incorrect because it was in November of 1813 that British and Spanish forces moved into Paris, captured Napoleon, and exiled him to Elba.
  4. E.   Flawed policies like the decision to constantly expand the Empire and the enforcement of the Continental System (which hampered the economies of Napoleon's allies more than that of Britain), and increasing resistance to French rule throughout the far-flung Empire, eventually led to an opposition coalition so large that it presented tactical and strategic difficulties that were insurmountable. Choice A is incorrect because the French army was well organized and unparalleled in its logistical efficiency. Choice B is incorrect because, while Napoleon was not the military genius he has sometimes been made out to be, it was insurmountable logistical problems rather than tactical blunders that led to his defeat. Choice C is incorrect because both Royalist and Republican opposition to his rule had been largely subdued by 1805. Choice D is incorrect because, although the loss of the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar ended Napoleon's dreams of controlling the seas and conquening the British, it did not mean defeat for Napoleon's land armies; they went on to conquer most of Europe in the subsequent decade.
  5. C.   The great powers at the Congress of Vienna were represented by members of the traditional, aristocratic ruling houses of Europe. Accordingly, their aims were to restore the traditional order of a Europe that the French Revolution had challenged and to create a new balance of power that would make another Napoleon impossible. Choice A is incorrect because the aims of restoring the traditional order and establishing a balance of power meant both the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and of a reasonable economic and military power in France. Choice B is incorrect because the aristocratic representatives at the Congress of Vienna were directly threatened by and, therefore, opposed to the democratic reforms of the French Revolution. Choice D is incorrect because the creation of an alliance system was a means to achieve the aim of a balance of power. Choice E is incorrect because the nationalist hopes of the Italians, Hungarians, and Czechs ran counter to the aim of rest ring the traditional order.
  6. D.   In 1821, the Concert of Europe authorized Austria to put down nationalist uprisings in the Italian kingdoms of Sicily and Piedmont. Choice A is incorrect because Spanish resistance during the existence of the Concert of Europe was to the restored Spanish Bourbon monarchy, which had the support of the Concert. Choice B is incorrect because the Greek independence movement against the Ottoman Turks was the one such rebellion supported by the Concert. Choice C is incorrect because Great Britain often sympathized with nationalist movements and formally withdrew from the Concert over the issue. Choice E is incorrect because the Concert supported Nicholas I's decision to crush a revolt led by reform-minded army officers in 1825.
  7. B.   The July Ordinances, issued in July 1830 by Charles X of France, dissolved part of the legislative branch of the government and revoked voting privileges from the bourgeoisie. The result was a rebellion by the bourgeoisie, students, and workers that forced him to abdicate in favor of a more compliant Louis Philippe. Choice A is incorrect because the Prussian military bombarded Frankfurt, thereby breaking up the Frankfurt Assembly, in November of 1848. Choice C is incorrect because the Second Republic of France was proclaimed in 1848. Choice D is incorrect because the political assemblies known as "banquets" were banned by Louis Philippe in February of 1848. Choice E is incorrect because the Greeks proclaimed their independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829.
  8. A.   The actual motives and goals of the revolutions of 1848 varied widely, but they can be best understood as a combination of the desire for liberal reforms that were either briefly enjoyed or envied by others during the period of the French Revolution and Napoleonic rule and the spirit of nationalism that was awakened across Europe by both the success of the united French people and resentment towards French rule domination. Choice B is incorrect because only some of the revolutions were independence movements; others simply sought liberal reform within existing kingdoms and states. Choice C is incorrect because only the most radical factions of the French rebellion in 1848 advocated redistribution of wealth and they were never in a position to make any "attempts" to do so. Choice D is incorrect because it contains a major chronological error: The French Revolution occurred from 1789 to 1799, and even if one includes the Napoleonic era there is no way the revolutions of 1848 could be precursors to the French Revolution. Choice E is incorrect because only some of the revolutions even came close to aiming at changes that would truly be democratic, and many of the nationalistic revolutions, like those in Italy, often pinned their hopes on the establishment of a national monarchy.
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