Nationalism and Statebuilding Review Questions for AP European History (page 2)
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
Nationalism and Statebuilding Review for the AP European History Exam
- The strongest conservative element in nineteenthcentury nationalism was
- the desire for a republican form of government
- its emphasis on the concept of natural borders
- its desire to resist the rule of traditional aristocratic dynasties
- its belief in the value of historical traditions
- its belief that political sovereignty rested with the people
- Cavour was able to unite northern Italy under the Kingdom of Piedmont through a combination of
- war and diplomacy
- diplomacy and bribery
- peasant revolts and military action
- war and secret dealings with the pope
- diplomacy and royal marriage
- Garibaldi's capitulation to King Victor Emmanuel II illustrates
- the failure of nationalism in Italy
- the triumph of liberal nationalism
- the degree to which the nationalist desire for unity had triumphed over the liberal desire for individual rights
- the power of the Hapsburg dynasty in Italy
- the power of the Bourbon dynasty in Italy
- The Schleswig–Holstein Affair is an example of
- the Risorgimento
- Russian conservatism
- German liberalism
- French imperialism
- Which of the following was the factor that brought south Germans into Bismarck's new German Confederation?
- their Catholicism in the face of war with France
- their liberalism in the face of war with Austria
- their nationalism in the face of war with a foreign enemy
- their desire for a strong, authoritarian central government
- the existence of a dominant aristocratic class of Junkers in south Germany
- By agreeing to the Compromise of 1867, the Hapsburg Emperor Franz Joseph was
- acknowledging the rights of all ethnic groups within the Hapsburg Empire
- enlisting the Hungarians in an alliance against the other ethnic minorities within the Empire
- acknowledging Prussian supremacy in the German Confederation
- ending serfdom in Russia
- ending the Crimean War
- In France, the Second Empire was brought to an end by
- France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
- Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état on 2 December 1851
- two plebiscites
- the Crimean War
- the unification of Italy
- In Russia, Tsar Alexander II's attempts to liberalize Russia were brought to an end by
- the abolition of serfdom
- the Crimean War
- the unification of Germany
- the Russian Revolution
- the Polish Revolution of 1863 and an attempt on his life in 1866
Answers and Explanations
- D. The belief in the value of historical traditions was the strongest conservative element in nationalism, which tended to use a mythologized version of history as a way to create a unified national identity. Choice A is incorrect because nationalism tended to put concerns for the strength and unity of the nation ahead of concerns for a particular form of government. Choice B is incorrect because the emphasis on the concept of natural borders was shared by liberal and conservative nationalists alike. Choices C and E are incorrect because the desire to resist the rule of traditional aristocratic dynasties like the Hapsburgs and the Bourbons and their belief that political sovereignty rested with the people were liberal tendencies of nationalism, not conservative elements.
- A. Cavour's successful strategy for uniting northern Italy under Piedmont worked through a combination of secret diplomatic arrangements with France and successful war with Austria. Choice B is incorrect because the smaller Kingdom of Piedmont was in no position to bribe the wealthier French Bourbons and Austrian Hapsburgs. Choice C is incorrect because peasant revolts were important in the unification of southern Italy, not northern. Choice D is incorrect because Cavour's secret dealings were with Napoleon III of France, not the pope. Choice E is incorrect because no royal marriages were concluded in the unification of northern Italy.
- C. Garibaldi had pledged to establish an Italian republic that protected the rights of all individuals; his willingness to hand over the southern portion of the peninsula to an aristocratic monarch, therefore, illustrates the degree to which the nationalist desire for unity had triumphed over the liberal desire for individual rights. Choice A is incorrect because Garibaldi's willingness to hand the south over to King Victor Emmanuel and Piedmont guaranteed that a unified Kingdom of Italy would come into being and, therefore, illustrates the triumph (not the failure) of Italian nationalism. Choice B is incorrect because Garibaldi's willingness to forego his dream of a republic illustrates the death of liberal nationalism (not the triumph). Choice D is incorrect because the fact that the fate of Italy was being decided by two Italians demonstrates the degree to which Austrian Hapsburg's power in Italy had declined. Choice E is similarly incorrect because the meeting between Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II illustrates the limited ability of the French Bourbon dynasty to dictate events in Italy.
- E. Bismarck's use of the Schleswig–Holstein Affair to manufacture a war with Austria is an example of his policy of Realpolitik, which increased Prussian territory and power by any means available. Choice A is incorrect because the Risorgimento refers to the mid-nineteenthcentury Italian nationalist movement. Choice B is incorrect because Russia was only tangentially involved in the Schleswig–Holstein Affair. Choice C is incorrect because Bismarck's disregard for the rights of individuals and groups of people is the antithesis of liberalism. Choice D is incorrect because France had only a minor role in the Schleswig–Holstein Affair and did not stand to increase the size of its empire as a result.
- C. Bismarck used the strong nationalist feelings of south Germans who were aroused by war with France to convince them to join his new Confederation and accept Prussian dominance. Choices A and B are incorrect because both the Catholicism and the liberalism of south Germans caused them to fear being dominated by the Protestant and conservative Prussians. Choice D is incorrect because the liberal south Germans had no desire for the strong, authoritarian central government favored by Prussians. Choice E is incorrect because the Junkers were the dominant aristocratic class in Prussia, not south Germany.
- B. The Compromise of 1867 set up the dual monarchy of Austria–Hungary with two parliaments, each under Emperor Franz Joseph; it was done as a concession to the Hungarians in order to enlist them in an alliance against the other ethnic groups in the Empire. Choice A is incorrect because the Compromise did nothing for any ethnic group other than the Hungarians. Choice C is incorrect because the Compromise did not acknowledge Prussian supremacy in the Confederation: The Austrians had been expelled from the Federation by the victorious Prussians following the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. Choice D is incorrect because the compromise did not concern Russia; serfdom in Russia was ended by Royal decree. Choice E is incorrect because the Compromise had nothing to do with the Crimean War, which ended in 1856.
- A. The Second Empire was brought to an end by France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War; Napoleon III was captured and the victorious Germans proclaimed the Second Empire to be dissolved. Choices B and C are incorrect because it was the Second French Republic (not the Second Empire) that was brought to an end by a combination of Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état on 2 December 1851 and two plebiscites that declared France to be an Empire and Napoleon III to be its hereditary emperor. Choice D is incorrect because, although France's involvement in the Crimean War hurt Napoleon III's popularity, it did not jeopardize the Second Empire. Choice E is incorrect because the unification of Italy had no direct bearing on the fall of the Second Empire in France.
- E. Alexander II's attempts to liberalize Russia were brought to an end by the combination of the Polish Revolution of 1863 (which was sparked by his granting Polish subjects more autonomy) and an attempt on his life in 1866 (which spurred him to crack down on his enemies and to build a police state). Choice A is incorrect because the abolition of serfdom was part of his attempts to liberalize Russia. Similarly, choice B is incorrect because the poor performance of the Russian military in the Crimean War was part of his motivation for modernizing and liberalizing Russia. Choice C is incorrect because Alexander II's liberal phase was over before German unification in 1871. Similarly, choice D is incorrect because Alexander II's liberal phase was over before the Russian Revolution, which did not occur until 1917.
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