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Nuclear Chemistry Review Questions for AP Chemistry

based on 4 ratings
By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Feb 2, 2011

Review the following concepts if necessary:

Problems

You have 10 minutes. You may not use a calculator. You may use the periodic table at the back of the book. For each question, circle the letter of your choice.

  1. When decays, it emits 2 α particles, then a β particle, followed by an α particle. The resulting nucleus is:
  2. The formation of from occurs by:
    1. electron capture
    2. α decay
    3. β decay
    4. positron decay
    5. γ decay
  3. Which of the following lists the types of radiation in the correct order of increasing penetrating power?
    1. α, γ, β
    2. β, α, γ
    3. α, β, γ
    4. β, γ, α
    5. γ, β, α
  4. What is the missing product in the following nuclear reaction?
  5. Which of the following statements are correct concerning β particles?
    1. They have a mass number of zero and a charge of –1.
    2. They are electrons.
    3. They are less penetrating than α particles.
    1. I and II
    2. I and III
    3. II and III
    4. I only
    5. II only
  6. An atom of undergoes radioactive decay by α emission. What is the product nuclide?
  7. If 75% of a sample of pure decays in 24.6 years, what is the half-life of ?
    1. 24.6 yr
    2. 18.4 yr
    3. 12.3 yr
    4. 6.15 yr
    5. 3.07 yr

Answers and Explanations

  1. D—The mass should be 226 – (4 + 4 + 0 + 4) = 214. The atomic number should be 88 – (2 + 2 – 1 + 2) = 83.
  2. B—Mass difference = 234 – 230 = 4, and atomic number difference = 92 – 90 = 2. These correspond to an α particle.
  3. C—Alpha particles are the least penetrating, and gamma rays are the most penetrating.
  4. C—Mass difference = 236 – 4(1) – 136 = 96. Atomic number difference = 92 – 4(0) – 53 = 39.
  5. A—In nuclear reactions the mass of a β particle is treated as 0, with a charge of –1. Electrons and β particles are the same thing.
  6. B—Mass number = 238 – 4 = 234, and atomic number = 92 – 2 = 90.
  7. C—After one half-life, 50% would remain. After another half-life this would be reduced by one-half to 25%. The total amount decayed is 75%. Thus, 24.6 yr must be two half-lives of 12.3 yr each.
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