Nuclear Chemistry Review Questions for AP Chemistry
Review the following concepts if necessary:
You have 10 minutes. You may not use a calculator. You may use the periodic table at the back of the book. For each question, circle the letter of your choice.
- When decays, it emits 2 α particles, then a β particle, followed by an α particle. The resulting nucleus is:
- The formation of from occurs by:
- electron capture
- α decay
- β decay
- positron decay
- γ decay
- Which of the following lists the types of radiation in the correct order of increasing penetrating power?
- α, γ, β
- β, α, γ
- α, β, γ
- β, γ, α
- γ, β, α
- What is the missing product in the following nuclear reaction?
- Which of the following statements are correct concerning β particles?
- They have a mass number of zero and a charge of –1.
- They are electrons.
- They are less penetrating than α particles.
- I and II
- I and III
- II and III
- I only
- II only
- An atom of undergoes radioactive decay by α emission. What is the product nuclide?
- If 75% of a sample of pure decays in 24.6 years, what is the half-life of ?
- 24.6 yr
- 18.4 yr
- 12.3 yr
- 6.15 yr
- 3.07 yr
Answers and Explanations
- D—The mass should be 226 – (4 + 4 + 0 + 4) = 214. The atomic number should be 88 – (2 + 2 – 1 + 2) = 83.
- B—Mass difference = 234 – 230 = 4, and atomic number difference = 92 – 90 = 2. These correspond to an α particle.
- C—Alpha particles are the least penetrating, and gamma rays are the most penetrating.
- C—Mass difference = 236 – 4(1) – 136 = 96. Atomic number difference = 92 – 4(0) – 53 = 39.
- A—In nuclear reactions the mass of a β particle is treated as 0, with a charge of –1. Electrons and β particles are the same thing.
- B—Mass number = 238 – 4 = 234, and atomic number = 92 – 2 = 90.
- C—After one half-life, 50% would remain. After another half-life this would be reduced by one-half to 25%. The total amount decayed is 75%. Thus, 24.6 yr must be two half-lives of 12.3 yr each.
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