By Larry J. Stephens, Ph.D. — McGraw-Hill Professional

Updated on Aug 12, 2011

Review the following concepts if necessary:

- Organizing Data for Beginning Statistics
- Class Limits, Class Boundaries, Class Marks, and Class Width for Beginning Statistics
- Histograms and Stem-and-Leaf Displays for Beginning Statistics

### Raw Data

- Classify the data described in the following scenarios as qualitative or quantitative. Classify the quantitative data as either discrete or continuous.
- The individuals in a sociological study are classified into one of five income classes as follows: low, low to middle, middle, middle to upper, or upper.
- The fasting blood sugar readings are determined for several individuals in a study involving diabetics.
- The number of questions correctly answered on a 25-item test is recorded for each student in a computer science class.
- The number of attempts needed before successfully finding the path through a maze that leads to a reward is recorded for several rats in a psychological study.
- The race of each inmate is recorded for the individuals in a criminal justice study.
- qualitative
- quantitative, continuous
- quantitative, discrete
- quantitative, discrete
- qualitative

*Ans*.

### Frequency Distribution for Qualitative Data

- The following responses were obtained when 50 randomly selected residents of a small city were asked the question "How safe do you think your neighborhood is for kids?"

Give a frequency distribution for these data.

*Ans*. See Table 2.31.

### Relative Frequency of a Category and Percentage

- Give the relative frequencies and percentages for the categories shown in Table 2.31.
- Refer to Table 2.32 to answer the following questions.
- What percent of the respondents have no opinion, i.e., responded not sure, on how safe the neighborhood is for children?
- What percent of the respondents think the neighborhood is very or somewhat safe for children?
- What percent of the respondents give a response other than very safe?
- 10%
- 64%
- 52%

*Ans*.

*Ans*. See Table 2.32.

### Bar Graphs and Pie Charts

- Construct a bar graph for the frequency distribution in Table 2.31.
- Construct a pie chart for the frequency distribution given in Table 2.31.
- The bar graph given Fig. 2-20 shows the distribution of responses of 300 individuals to the question "How do you prefer to spend stressful times?" The graph shown in Fig. 2-20 was produced by STATISTIX.
- What percent preferred to spend time alone?
- What percent gave a response other than "with friends"?
- How many individuals responded "with family," "with friends," or "other"?
- 50%
- 83.3%
- 150

*Ans*.

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From Schaum's Outline of Beginning Statistics. Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

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