Origins of World Belief Systems Review Questions for AP World History
By Peggy J. Martin — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- Both Hinduism and Buddhism
- supported the caste system.
- revered women.
- became increasingly popular in India.
- all of the above.
- none of the above.
- remained a religion of the Roman Empire.
- taught the forgiveness of sins through faith in Jesus.
- was not a missionary religion.
- failed to utilize the public works of the Roman Empire.
- gained an early popularity among Roman rulers.
- Confucianism and early Buddhism
- became the dominant philosophy of their respective regions.
- emphasized the importance of effective government.
- included a belief in nirvana.
- did not believe that their founders were gods.
- elevated the status of women.
- Daoism and Confucianism
- agreed on the importance of education.
- disagreed on the need for personal reflection.
- taught that active political involvement was essential to a stable society.
- agreed on how to address the turmoil after the fall of the Zhou dynasty.
- based their teachings on Chinese traditions.
- The Silk Roads were especially instrumental in the spread of
- During the period of the late Roman Empire, Christianity
- experienced a change in its official status.
- declined in numbers because of persecutions.
- became less organized as the empire fell.
- appealed primarily to elite classes.
- denied the equality of women in matters of faith.
- was based on traditions of the Harappan civilization.
- addressed the consequences of one's behavior.
- offered no hope for members of lower castes.
- became secondary to Buddhism among the religions of India.
- gained little acceptance outside India.
- became the most popular faith in India.
- was the adopted faith of Gupta rulers.
- opposed Confucian ideals of patriarchal families.
- changed over time from transmission by traders to its spread through the services of monasteries.
- changed over time to teach that common people could reach nirvana.
Answers and Explanations
- E—None of the above. Whereas Hinduism supported the caste system, Buddhism did not (A). Buddhism showed respect for women; Hinduism did not (B). Only Hinduism became increasingly popular in India (C).
- B—Forgiveness of sins was a central teaching of Christianity. Christianity spread beyond the borders of the Roman Empire to Africa and Asia (A). Christian missionaries, especially Paul of Tarsus, actively promoted their faith (C). Missionary efforts were facilitated by the system of Roman roads (D). Roman emperors tended to fear the new religion and some of them, especially Diocletian, persecuted Christians. Later Roman emperors such as Constantine and Theodosius treated Christians favorably (E).
- D—Neither Confucius nor the Buddha believed himself to be a god. Later Buddhists, however, sometimes deified the Buddha. Although Confucianism became the dominant philosophy throughout most of Chinese history, Buddhism lost popularity to Hinduism (A). Only Confucianism emphasized the importance of effective government (B). The concept of nirvana was a Buddhist belief only (C). Confucianism kept women in a subordinate position (E).
- E—Confucianism embraced the traditions of centralization of government and veneration of ancestors, whereas Daoism used the concepts of yin and yang to explain its teachings. Confucianism stressed the importance of education (A), whereas Daoism taught personal reflection (B). Confucianism encouraged active political involvement (C). Confucianism sought to end political turmoil by creating educated leaders, whereas Daoism held to the belief that eventually the problems following the fall of the Zhou would be resolved by the balance of nature (D).
- D—Buddhism was spread primarily by traders who followed the Silk Roads. Polytheism (A) was found in numerous locations worldwide and was not spread along the Silk Roads. Confucianism (B) spread to Korea and Japan, areas not included in the Silk Roads. Daoism (C) was essentially a Chinese philosophy. Judaism (E) remained a faith of the Middle East and of Jewish diaspora communities; it was not a religion that actively sought converts.
- A—During the late Roman Empire, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Persecution only increased its numbers (B). During the latter days of the empire, the Christian religion was acquiring a detailed organization from parish priest to pope (C). The new religion appealed to members of all classes, especially the poor (D) and treated women and men with respect and equality in matters of faith (E).
- B—Hinduism held its followers responsible for their actions. It was based on the traditions of the Aryan society (A). Offering lower classes the hope of reaching moksha (C), Hinduism became popular in Southeast Asia as well as India (E). It became the dominant religion of India (D).
- E—The Buddhist belief of bodhisattvas, developed after the faith spread out from India, taught that common people could reach nirvana. Buddhist women were allowed to become nuns (A). Hinduism was adopted by the Gupta (B). In China, Buddhism eventually blended with Confucianism to support the concept of patriarchal families (C). Over time, Buddhism changed from spreading through contacts with Buddhist monasteries to being spread by traders (D).
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