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Paragraph Development Practice Exercises 2 (page 3)

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Updated on Sep 28, 2011

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  1. d.   This is the correct order of the events described in the paragraph.
  2. c.   Sentence 2 gives an overview of what the paragraph is about. Sentence 3 gives specific reasons why Sentence 2 is correct. Sentence 1 gives the reason why Sentence 3 is correct.
  3. b.   Sentence 1 provides a statement about adding a treat to a child's lunchbox periodically and gives no indication, by its tone or its wording, that it is based upon any other sentence. Sentence 4 tells us that in spite of the truth in that statement, it is best, as a general rule, to provide healthy snacks and it uses the word however, which indicates that it is responding to another idea which we've already heard. Sentence 2 with the word usually, gives a definition of what is considered a healthy snack. Sentence 3 goes on to provide specific examples of healthy snacks.
  4. b.   Sentence 3 is the topic sentence and states the main goal of the neighborhood association. Sentence 2 goes on to cite specific tasks that help the association achieve that goal. Sentence 1, with the word Additionally, tells us that there is one more thing the association does, even though it is a less frequent and less primary responsibility.
  5. a.   In this choice, the order is chronological. In Sentence 4, they take Grandma to the Greyhound station. In Sentence 2, the bus has not yet moved away from the station. In Sentence 1, the bus jolts away but is still in town. In Sentence 3, the bus (at least in the narrator's mind) is out on the open highway.
  6. a.   Sentence 1 is the topic sentence. Sentence 4 defines the term double jeopardy used in Sentence 1; Sentence 2 gives another definition, signaled by also; Sentence 3 begins with the word Finally and gives the last definition.
  7. c.   Sentence 3 is clearly the lead sentence as it tells us something about the new employee handbook and is in no way based on information provided in the other two sentences. Sentence 2 uses the word also to indicate that it is telling us something else about the handbook, something that adds to a fact we've already been told. Sentence 1, which is making a generalization about the new policies, is based on information we already know from Sentences 3 and 2. Because of this, it can only follow these sentences and not precede them.
  8. a.   Sentence 2 sets the stage—this is a memory. After that, the order is chronological: In Sentence 1, the man tries to teach his son how to pitch. In Sentence 4, he wasn't interested, so he gave up. Sentence 3 logically follows—the memory of giving up makes him feel sad and guilty.
  9. d.   Sentence 4 sets the reader up to expect a discussion of a procedure. Sentence 3 tells how you can find the right report forms. Sentence 1 leads logically into Sentence 2.
  10. a.   Sentence 2 is the topic sentence. Sentence 1 provides reasons for the procedure described in the topic sentence. Sentence 3 gives further definition as a conclusion.
  11. d.   The word Yet at the beginning of Sentence 1 is a clue that this is not the beginning sentence. Sentences 4 and 1 are the only ones that logically follow each other, so the other choices can be ruled out.
  12. c.   Sentence 1 introduces the topic of carburetors. Sentence 2 defines what a carburetor is, while Sentence 4 explains its importance. Sentence 3 provides a conclusion to the paragraph.
  13. b.   Sentence 2 is the topic sentence, introducing the subject. Sentence 3 expands the topic, and Sentence 1 concludes with a general observation on the use of irises.
  14. a.   Sentence 1 introduces the topic, while Sentence 2 develops it. Sentence 3 draws a conclusion from the first two sentences.
  15. b. Paragraph 2 contradicts the misconceptions potential adopters of racing greyhounds might have about the breed. Choice b states that certain popular beliefs about greyhounds are erroneous and acts as a transition to the facts that follow in the paragraph. Choice a does not focus on contradicting the misinformation; also, the phrase even so appears to agree with the misconceptions rather than contradict them. Choice c does not focus on the argument; instead, it repeats information given in the previous sentence. Choice d, rather than supporting the main purpose of the paragraph—which is to dispel myths about racing greyhounds—actually contradicts information in Parts 6 and 7.
  16. b. The possessive pronoun their is correct.
  17. c. This choice is the best because it retains the writer's informal, reassuring tone and because the information in it furthers the purpose of this paragraph—i.e., the suitability of greyhounds as household pets. This response also is clearly directed at a general audience of householders. Choice a is incorrect because the information does not keep with the topic of the paragraph; also, the tone set by the inclusion of a precise statistic is too formal. Choice b retains the informal tone of the selection but it provides information already given in the first paragraph and not suitable to the purpose of this paragraph. The tone in choice d is argumentative, which defeats the author's purpose of trying to reassure the reader.
  18. c. This question tests the ability to recognize a sentence fragment. Although choice c does include a subject and a verb, it is a dependent clause because it begins with the adverb when. Choices a, b, and d are all standard sentences.
  19. a. This question assesses the ability to recognize redundancy in a sentence. Choice a removes the redundancy of Part 8 by taking out the word also, which repeats the meaning of the introductory phrase in addition to. Choices b and c involve changing singular nouns to plural and plural possessive nouns, which is not necessary and would make the sentence grammatically incorrect. Choice d would change the meaning of the sentence incorrectly. The attitude of the community toward young people is being reported, not what young people have reported about the community attitude.
  20. c. Choice c provides a fact that supports and expands upon the information given in the previous sentences. The first two sentences tell us about the program's success and the plans for expanding it. The third sentence builds upon these ideas by providing detailed information about the results of the program and who was involved. Choice a changes the subject of this paragraph. This paragraph is about the program in a specific school district and choice a makes a comment about other school districts, which may be true, but which is not related to the topic of this particular paragraph. Choice b adds a detail about the program but it is a single detail as opposed to a conclusive, summarizing sentence that gives us a clear idea of the program specifics. Choice d, which mentions the possibility of other pilot programs, again, changes the subject and veers away from the main topic of this paragraph which is the Mural PaintingProgram within this particular school district.
  21. d. This question tests the ability to recognize standard sentence structure. Part 2 is an incorrectly punctuated compound sentence—a comma splice. Choice d correctly joins the two simple sentences into a compound one by using a semicolon in place of the comma. Choice a creates an error in subject-verb agreement. Choice b is incorrect because a dash cannot join two simple sentences into a compound one. Choice c turns the first phrase of the sentence, Deciding on the hamburger steak special, into a dangling modifier.
  22. b. This question assesses the ability to recognize the correct use of modifiers. The phrase After tasting each of the dishes on my plate is a dangling modifier; the sentence does not have a subject pronoun this phrase could modify. Choice b is correct because it supplies the missing subject pronoun I. Choices a, c, and d are incorrect because they let the modification error stand; none of them provide a subject pronoun the phrase could modify.
  23. b. This question assesses the ability to recognize the correct agreement of subject and verb. Choice b is correct because it uses the third-person singular of the verb to be, is, which agrees in number and in person with the subject one. Choice a is wrong because it does not correct the subject-verb agreement problem; instead, it removes an optional comma between location and and. Choice c is incorrect because it does not correct the agreement error, instead, it makes an unnecessary change in vocabulary from increase to enhance. Choice d is incorrect because it does not correct the agreement problem; instead, it creates an error by misplacing the modifier only directly after the semicolon.
  24. d. This question tests the ability to recognize the logical connection of ideas in a paragraph and to recognize grammatical consistency. Choice d gives a general piece of advice (start walking), which is followed by two sentences that point to things that will result from following this advice. Choice a is incorrect because although it does give a general piece of advice that would make sense at the beginning of this paragraph, it contains an error in the pronoun/antecedent agreement (using the pronoun people, which disagrees in person with the anteced-ent you). Choice b is incorrect because it includes other forms of physical activity (jogging, bicycling) that are off the topic (walking) and are irrelevant to the development and order of ideas in the passage. Choice c is incorrect because it contains the same pronoun/antecedent agreement problem as choice a, and the sentence does not respect the order of ideas in the paragraph; it returns, in the third paragraph of the passage, to information and ideas that are more appropriate to the first paragraph.
  25. a. Choice a is correct because a comma after the word rewards in Part 3 closes off the parenthetical phrase between the subject, physical activity, and the predicate, will. Choice b is incorrect because it introduces an incomplete comparison into Part 1. Choice c is incorrect because it adds an unnecessary comma into Part 5. Choice d is incorrect because it adds a misplaced colon to Part 2.
  26. b. The word appraised, meaning judged, does not make sense in the context; the correct word for the context is apprised, meaning informed. Choices a, c, and d are all incorrect because the words incriminate, criteria, and ascertain are all used correctly in context.
  27. c. The information in Part 5 continues the description of what judges must ascertain about such cases, which began in Part 3. Skipping next to the responsibilities of officers and back to judges, as happens in the passage as it stands, is confusing. Choices a and b are incorrect because they introduce examples before the passage states what the examples are supposed to show. Choice d is incorrect because deleting Part 2 removes the statement from which all the paragraph's examples and information follow. c. The information in Part 5 continues the description of what judges must ascertain about such cases, which began in Part 3. Skipping next to the responsibilities of officers and back to judges, as happens in the passage as it stands, is confusing. Choices a and b are incorrect because they introduce examples before the passage states what the examples are supposed to show. Choice d is incorrect because deleting Part 2 removes the statement from which all the paragraph's examples and information follow.
  28. c. Part 4 contains a run-on sentence; the conjunction however requires the use of either a colon or semicolon before it in order to link two sentences. The other choices are incorrect because the parts they indicate contain standard sentences.
  29. d. This choice provides the plural reflexive pronoun themselves, which agrees in number and person with the subject, Those. Choice a is incorrect because it provides the verb combine which does not agree in person or in number with the subject, snow-boarding. Choice b is incorrect because it removes a hyphen necessary to the creation of compound adjectives. Choice c is incorrect because it changes the verb to the past tense, which does not agree with the present tense used throughout the paragraph.
  30. b. The topic of the passage is Abraham Lincoln's effectiveness as a leader. The fact that his picture is on U.S. currency is irrelevant.
  31. c. The word nation is not being used as a proper noun and does not need to be capitalized. The other choices do not need to be changed; they are grammatically correct as is.
  32. b. Part 5 contains the comparative form more, but the sentence only includes one side of the comparison. The phrase someone … may feel more tired is an incomplete comparison because it does not state what people feel more tired than. Choices a, c, and d are incorrect because these parts do not contain incomplete or faulty comparisons.
  33. a. This question requires the ability to infer the logical relationships between ideas in a sequence. In this case, relationships are, first, between stated fact and the conclusion or hypothesis drawn from the fact (since); and, second, between the hypothesis and a particular illustration supporting the hypothesis (For example).
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