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Paragraph Development Practice Exercises 3 (page 3)

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Updated on Sep 28, 2011

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  1. d. This question calls on the ability to identify standard usage of the possessive. Choice d is correct because the word researchers is actually a possessive noun, and so an apostrophe must be added. Choices a and c are incorrect because they substitute misused homonyms for the words given. Choice b is incorrect because it contains a faulty pronoun/antecedent—the microprobes have a diminutive width, not the brain.
  2. b. In Part 4, the adverb typically is misused as an adjective to modify the noun wire. The other choices do not contain nonstandard uses of modifiers.
  3. c. The phrases since they [microprobes] are slightly thinner than a human hair and because of their [microprobes'] diminutive width contain the same information.
  4. b. The predicate does not match the subject grammatically, which is necessary when using the verb is: A passenger-created disturbance doesn't match by playing … or creating.
  5. c. This choice makes use of parallel structure because the list of the conductors' obligations are all expressed in the same subject/verb grammatical form: Conductors will wait, will allow, will not allow. In choices a, b, and d, the parallelism of the list is thrown off by the last item in the list, which changes the subject of its verb from operators to passengers.
  6. b. Part 6 contains a nonstandard use of a preposition. The standard idiom is comply with rather than comply to. Choices a, c, and d do not contain nonstandard uses of prepositions.
  7. b. Part 6 contains a sentence fragment; the sentence is a dependent clause. Choices a, c, and d all refer to standard sentences.
  8. c. The main purpose of this paragraph is strictly informational, to outline Dr. Miranda Woodhouse's plan to reduce the risks of heart disease, and choice c focuses the reader's attention on the four strategies that Dr. Woodhouse proposes as part of this plan. Choice a contains seemingly contradictory information which is in no way implied or stated in the paragraph. Choice b focuses on the life expectancy rates of American citizens and while lowering heart disease may boost life expectancy rates, this paragraph does not deal with that at all. It focuses exclusively on Dr. Woodhouse's plan for preventing heart disease. Choice d makes an argumentative claim about one part of Dr. Woodhouse's plan, which is out of place in a paragraph that seeks only to outline the basic strategies.
  9. c. The possessive pronoun their is used erroneously in Part 9. There is the word that should be used.
  10. c. A comma is necessary after the first part of the sentence, which is an introductory phrase. Choice a is incorrect because visiting London, Paris, and Rome was not dependent on her being ten years old, so the word Because doesn't make sense. Choice b is incorrect because a comma after Although is unnecessary and makes the sentence grammatically incorrect. Choice d is incorrect because the word breathtaking is describing a noun (scenes) and requires an adjective, not an adverb. Breathtakingly is an adverb.
  11. b. Part 2 contains a sentence fragment. Choices a, c, and d are incorrect because they all contain standard sentences.
  12. c. The semicolon in Part 6 must be followed by an independent clause, and here it is followed by a dependent clause. Choices a, b, and d are incorrect because they all contain standard sentences.
  13. b. The underlined word in Part 7 needs to be made into a plural noun. Choice a is incorrect because it is a singular noun which makes for incorrect subject-verb agreement. Choices c and d are incorrect because they are possessive.
  14. b. End quotation marks must be inserted before the tag phrase, says Warner. Choice a is incorrect because the quotation marks are necessary to begin the quotation again after the tag phrase. Choice c is incorrect because the beverage case is not a clause that should be set off with commas. It is essential to the meaning of the sentence. Choice d is incorrect because than is a conjunction used to compare things and is the word that should be used here.
  15. b. Memorize does not really make sense in this context. A more appropriate word might be mimic or imitate. Choices a, c, and 3 are word choices that all make sense within the context of this paragraph.
  16. d. Part 5 acts as a topic sentence for the ideas and quotations in the third paragraph. Combining Part 5 with paragraph 3 makes the subject of the third paragraph clearer to the reader and brings information on the main topic together in the same place. Choice a would not really make any major difference in the paragraph and doesn't do anything to help focus attention on the main idea. Choice b would make the main idea less, not more, clear. Choice c would just make for a much longer sentence without adding any emphasis to the main idea.
  17. c. The first paragraph mentions that saving room for herbs such as lavender, sage, thyme, and parsley is a characteristic of a thrifty gardener, but fails to explain why it is a sign of thrift. Choice a is incorrect because it removes information that is vital to explaining why the plants mentioned in Part 1 are appropriate to a gardener who has little time. Choice b is incorrect because reversing the order of the sentences moves the demonstrative pronoun these in Part 2 too far away from its antecedent. Choice d is incorrect because the passage does not indicate that growing roses is easy in general; rather, it suggests particular types of roses (hardy species) as appropriate to a garden that requires little time for maintenance.
  18. a. This sentence creates a transition between the idea of harvesting food from a garden and the proper way of planting in order to achieve a good yield of food. Choice b is incorrect because it is redundant, repeating information already stated in Part 5. Choice c contains information that is on the subject matter of the first paragraph and is, thus, off-topic in the second. Choice d is off-topic and does not match the main idea of the paragraph; it mentions time-consuming work in a paragraph on the subject of gardening that takes a moderate amount of time.
  19. b. The word lavished should be substituted for languished because it makes no sense in the context.
  20. c. Part 4 contains a nonstandard verb form, brung, as the past-tense form of to bring; the correct verb is brought. Choices a, b, and d are incorrect because they do not contain nonstandard usages of verbs.
  21. b. Part 3 contains a sentence fragment, for there is no main verb in the sentence. Choices a, c, and d are incorrect because they are complete sentences.
  22. b. Part 3 requires a comma before the coordinate conjunction so. Choice d is incorrect because it already shows a comma separating the two independent clauses. Choices a and c are incorrect because each contains only one independent clause.
  23. a. This answer is in the simple past tense, which is the tense used throughout the paragraph. Choices b, c, and d are incorrect because they suggest tenses inconsistent with the tense of the rest of the paragraph.
  24. b. The context requires that the noun renown be replaced by the adjective renowned. Choice a is incorrect because the change to when makes no sense in the context; it would imply that Augustus grew up before immigrating. Choice c incorrectly inserts the contraction of subject and verb it is in a context where the possessive pronoun its is required. Choice d is incorrect because it introduces a diction error into the sentence.
  25. b. The semicolon in Part 2 is used incorrectly to introduce a list. In choices a, c, and d, the semicolon correctly separates two independent clauses.
  26. c. The expressions year-round and in all seasons repeat the same idea. Choices a, b, and d are incorrect because none of these sentences contain unnecessary repetition. Part 4 may seem to, at first; however, the words hot and humid are described in more interesting and specific terms in the second part of the sentence.
  27. b. The subject of Part 3 is climate and therefore requires the third-person singular form of the verb to be—is. Choice c is incorrect because the comma is correctly placed after an introductory phrase. Choice a incorrectly inserts the possessive pronoun its in a context where the contraction of subject and verb it is is required. Choice d is incorrect because the comma is necessary to close off the interruptive phrase, whether in the back country or at established campgrounds, between the subject and verb.
  28. c. Part 7 provides information about the high cost of healthcare insurance. It doesn't give information about the main topic of this passage, which is how to choose a doctor. Choices a, b, and d are incorrect because all of these sentences provide information about, and guidelines for, choosing a doctor.
  29. a. An adverb is required here because the word is being used to add information to a verb (responds). The correct form of the word is quickly. Choice b is incorrect because the term more better is grammatically incorrect. Choice c is incorrect because in the context of this sentence, using the past tense, accepted, is not appropriate. Choice d is incorrect because the sentence requires an adjective here, not an adverb.
  30. a. In Part 1, the adjective good is misused as an adverb; it needs to be replaced by the adverb well.
  31. a. In Part 4, the verb assure, to make certain, is nonsensical in the context; it should be replaced by the verb assume, to suppose or take for granted. Choices b, c, and d are incorrect because all these words are used properly in their context.
  32. d. The paragraph consistently uses the pronoun you; therefore, the inconsistent use of our should be replaced by your. Choice a is incorrect because the comma is necessary before the coordinate conjunction but. Choice b is incorrect because insertion of a colon would incorrectly divide a phrase. Choice c is incorrect because it would introduce an error of tense shift into the paragraph.
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