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Reading Comprehension and Long Passages Reading Practice (page 2)

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Updated on Aug 10, 2011

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  1. c.   According to the paragraph , Deep, underlying fissures that already existed in the economy led to the Great Depression.
  2. a.   The passage is primarily an account that describes the causative factors (for example, tariff and war-debt policies, disproportionate wealth, and the accumulation of debt) that led to the Depression and its effects (for example, business failures, bank closings, homelessness, federal relief programs).
  3. c.   Paragraph states that shantytowns were called Hoovervilles because citizens blamed their plight on the Hoover administration's refusal to offer assistance.
  4. b.   Although policies can refer to regulations or laws (choice c) or guiding principles or theories (choice a), in this context, policies refers to the courses of action that are taken, from which a government or business intends to influence decisions or actions. Choice b is the only answer that implies action.
  5. d.   The passage describes the decade as one in which spending dominated over prudent measures like saving (paragraph ). The wild stock market speculation, also described in that paragraph, is another example of extravagance.
  6. b.   The analogy depicts the stock market crash of as a weakening agent to the economy (the way a stressful event may weaken the body's resistance to illness).
  7. d.   This paragraph clearly states that the New Deal expanded the role of the central government in regulating the economy and creating social assistance programs. Choices b and c are incorrect and choice a requires an opinion; the author does not offer his or her viewpoint about the New Deal measures.
  8. a.   Choice b emphasizes only damage to the atmosphere; the passage encompasses more than that. Choice c does not mention the atmosphere, which is the main focus of the passage. Choice d is too narrow—the final paragraph of the passage emphasizes that the circulation of the atmosphere is but one example of the complex events that keeps the earth alive.
  9. c.   This question assesses the ability to see the organization of a reading passage and to organize material for study purposes. Choice a is wrong because the passage does not explain exactly what will happen as a result of damage to the atmosphere and other life-sustaining mechanisms. Choice b is wrong because the passage does not explain the origin of the atmosphere. Choice d is wrong because it is solar energy that travels million miles through space, not the atmosphere.
  10. b.   The biosphere, as defined in paragraph , is a region (or part) of the earth; it is not the envelope around the earth, the living things on Earth, or the circulation of the atmosphere (choices a, c, and d).
  11. d.   This question assesses the ability to recognize supported and unsupported claims. Choice a deals with solar radiation, not with circulation of the atmosphere. Choice b is an assertion without specific supporting detail. Choice c describes how the atmosphere protects Earth but does not speak of the circulation of the atmosphere. Only choice d explains that conditions would be inhospitable at the equator and poles without the circulation of the atmosphere; therefore, it is the best choice.
  12. a.   This question assesses the ability to see cause and effect. Paragraph deals with how variations in the strength with which solar radiation strikes the earth affects temperature. None of the other choices is discussed in terms of all temperature changes on Earth.
  13. a.   There is no mention in the first paragraph of any reviving or cleansing effect the atmosphere may have (choices b and d). In a sense, enabling the earth to sustain life is invigorating; however, choice a is a better choice because the first two sentences talk about how the atmosphere protects the earth from harmful forces.
  14. b.   Paragraph mentions that the symptoms of Type II diabetes may occur gradually and thus be attributed to other causes. Left untreated, diabetes can cause damage to several major organs in the body.
  15. b.   According to the beginning of paragraph , only the long-term health problems are the same for these two different disorders.
  16. d.   Paragraph mentions that when the body has more glucose than needed, it stores the overflow in muscle tissue, fat, or the liver.
  17. c. According to the last paragraph, non-insulin-dependent diabetics should stick to a diet consisting of –% carbohydrates. The paragraph also notes that raw foods do not cause as high a blood sugar level as cooked foods.
  18. a.   Paragraph mentions that, although insulin must bind to a receptor in order to begin working, the main role of insulin is to signal the burning of glucose/sugar for energy. Most hormones function as stimuli for other processes.
  19. b.   Type II, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes is the main subject of the passage, which distinguishes Type II from Type I and goes on to stress the importance of diet.
  20. d.   Paragraph of the passage tells us that possible problems with insulin receptors include a paucity of receptors or a defect causing improper binding of the insulin to the receptors. In addition, even though insulin may bind to its receptors, cells may fail to read the signal to metabolize the glucose.
  21. c.   Paragraph states that normally, after the digestive system breaks down food into smaller molecules, including glucose (otherwise known as sugar), the blood-sugar level rises. Insulin is then released from the pancreas, thus signaling tissues to metabolize the glucose.
  22. c.   Type I diabetes is the insulin-dependent form of this condition. The minority of diabetics are afflicted with this form. They are diagnosed as children and must take daily injections of insulin to compensate for what their pancreases do not produce.
  23. a.   The final paragraph says that there is no cure for diabetes, so choices b and d are incorrect. Choice c is a possibility, but consider the sound of the word soothe. It does not fit with the objective tone of the passage nearly as well as the word counteract.
  24. c.   In the first paragraph, the communication network of the millions of cells in the immune system is compared to bees swarming around a hive.
  25. b.   All the answers indicate peaceful coexistence. However, according to the fifth sentence of paragraph , in this instance, the state is referred to as self-tolerance.
  26. c.   See the last paragraph. The substances known as allergens are responsible for triggering an inappropriate immune response to ragweed pollen.
  27. d.   The last paragraph of the passage mentions that an antigen announces its foreignness with intricate shapes called epitopes that protrude from the surface.
  28. a.   Every individual's immune system must learn to recognize and deal with non-self molecules through experience. However, the last section of paragraph mentions that the immune system is capable of choices b, c, and d.
  29. b.   According to paragraph , the ability to distinguish between self and non-self is the heart of the immune system. This topic is set up in the first paragraph and further elucidated throughout the body of the passage.
  30. b.   The last paragraph mentions that tissues or cells from another individual may act as antigens except in the case of identical twins whose cells carry identical self-markers.
  31. a.   The context leads to the meaning: The first sentence speaks of complexity, from which we can infer an elaborate system of interconnections, especially in light of the second sentence. There is no mention of confusion in the passage (choice b). The word perplexity means bewilderment and is unrelated to the passage (choice c). Choice d is a newspaper and TV term that is unrelated to the passage.
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