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Patterns of Inheritance Practice Test (page 4)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Aug 19, 2011

Answers

Matching Questions 1

1. F   2. C   3. A   4. H   5. B   6. D   7. G   8. E

Matching Questions 2

1. H   2. C   3. C   4. A   5. F   6. A   7. B   8. B

Vocabulary

  1. phenotype
  2. genotype
  3. heterozygote (heterozygous cell)
  4. homozygote (homozygous cell)
  5. recessive
  6. mutant type
  7. codominant, incompletely dominant, partially dominant, semidominant
  8. lethal gene
  9. penetrance
  10. expressivity

Multiple-Choice

  1. c
  2. e
  3. d
  4. b
  5. b
  6. c
  7. a
  8. e (10 genotypes)
  9. d
  10. c
  11. e (27)
  12. c
  13. e (1/6)
  14. e (2/9)

Dominant and Recessive Alleles

  1. Bb × Bb
  2. (a) bb = white   (b) Bb
  3. 1/2 wild-type s+s : 1/2 sepia ss
  4. (a) 1/4   (b) 1/16   (c) 2(3/4 × 1/4) = 3/8
  5. (a) Ll female × ll male   (b) 1 short : 1 long   (c) 4
  6. 1/6
  7. (a) 1/2 BB : 1/2 Bb-all red   (b) 1/2 Bb = red : 1/2 bb = silver-black   (c) all Bb = red

Codominance and Incomplete Dominance

  1. (a) Single pair of codominant alleles   (b) FSFS = splashed-white : FSFB = Blue Andalusian : FBFB = black
  2. 9/16 long : 6/16 oval : 1/16 round
  3. (a) 1 palomino : 1 nonpalomino   (b) 100%; D1D1 × D1D1 = all D1D1(chestnut); similarly D2D2 × D2D2 = all D2D2(cremello)   (c) D1D1(chestnut) × D2D2(cremello)

Lethal Alleles

  1. Creepers are heterozygous. Normal birds and lethal zygotes are homozygous for alternative alleles. One of the alleles is dominant with respect to the creeper phenotype; the other allele is dominant with respect to viability.
  2. 4 normal : 4 hairless
  3. 9/15 dark-green CGCG : 6/15 light-green CGCY
  4. (a) 1/2   (b) 2/3

Multiple Alleles

  1. Alexandria type (white eye) = AA, Aan, Aa; normal type (yellow eye) = anan, ana; Primrose Queen type (large yellow eye) = aa
  2. (a) 1/2 MRMR : 1/2 MRM; all restricted   (b) 1/2 MRMR : 1/2 MRm; all restricted   (c) 1/4 MRMR : 1/4 MRm : 1/4 MRM : 1/4 Mm; 3/4 restricted : 1/4 mallard   (d) 1/4 MRM : 1/4 MRm : 1/4 Mm: 1/4 mm; 1/2 restricted : 1/4 mallard : 1/4 dusky   (e) = Mm = mallard : 1/2 mm = dusky
  3. (a) Embryos = 1/2 S1S3 : 1/2 S3S4
  4. Endosperms = 1/2 S1S1S3 : 1/2 S4S4S3

    (b) None

    (c) Embryos = 1/4 S1S2 : 1/4 S1S4 : 1/4 S3S2 : 1/4 S3S4

    Endosperms = 1/4 S1S1S2 : 1/4 S1S1S4 : 1/4 S3S3S2 : 1/4 S3S3S4

    (d) Embryos = 1/2 S2S4 : 1/2 S3S4;

    Endosperm = 1/2 S2S2S4 : 1/2 S3S3S4

  5. (a) F1 = 1/2 EDE (black with trace of agouti) : 1/2 EDe (nonagouti black)
  6. F2 = 1/4 EDED : 1/4 EDe : 1/4 EDE : 1/16 EE : 1/8 Ee : 1/16 ee

    1/2 nonagouti black : 1/4 black with trace of agouti : 3/16 full color : 1/16 reddish-yellow

    (b) F1 = 1/2 EDe (nonagouti black) : 1/2 ee (reddish – yellow)

    F2 = 1/16 EDED : 3/8 EDe : 9/16 ee; 7/16 nonagouti black : 9/16 reddish-yellow

  7. 1/4 Ssh : 1/4 Ssc: 1/4 shs: 1/4 scs; 1/2 Dutch-belted : 1/4 Hereford-type spotting : 1/4 solid color
  8. (a) The man could be the father, but paternity cannot be proved by blood type. In certain cases, a man may be excluded as a father of a child [see part (d)].   (b) IBi man × IAi woman   (c) IBIB   (d) no

Statistical Distribution

  1. (a) 90/1024   (b) 270/1024   (c) 405/1024   (d) 1/1024
  2. (a) 1/2 (b) 1
  3. 66
  4. (a) (1) agouti × cinnamon (2) agouti × black (3) agouti × chocolate (4) agouti × albino (5) cinnamon × black (6) cinnamon × chocolate (7) cinnamon × albino (8) black× chocolate (9) black × albino (10) chocolate × albino
  5. (a) 4 males : 4 females   (b) 5th   (c) 27.34%

Dihybrid Crosses With Dominant and Recessive Alleles

  1. 1/4 CCTT : 1/4 CCTt : 1/4 CcTT : 1/4 CcTt; all axial, colored
  2. 9/16 white, disk : 3/16 white, sphere : 3/16 yellow, disk : 1/16 yellow, sphere
  3. 144 wild type : 48 vestigial : 48 ebony : 16 ebony, vestigial
  4. (a) 1/4 LLBb : 1/4 LlBb : 1/4 LLbb : 1/4 Llbb; 1/2 short, black : 1/2 short, brown   (b) 1/8 LLBb : 1/4 LIBb : 1/8 LLbb : 1/4 Llbb : 1/8 llBb : 1/8 llbb; 3/8 short, black : 3/8 short, brown : 1/8 long, black : 1/8 long, brown
  5. (a) 9/16 short, black : 3/16 short, brown : 3/16 long, black : 1/16 long, brown   (b) 25%   c) 50%   (d) 25%   (e) 6.25%   (f) 25%   (g) 25%   (h) 8.33%
  6. 4 FFpp : 4 Ffpp : 1 ffpp; 8 feathered leg, single comb : 1 clean leg, single comb
  7. (a) ABC, ABc   (b) aBC, aBc, abC, abc   (c) ABcD, ABcd, AbcD, Abcd, aBcD, aBcd, abcD, abcd   (d) ABCdEF, ABCdEf, ABCdeF, ABCdef, ABcdEF, ABcdEf, ABcdeF, ABcdef, AbCdEF, AbCdEf, AbCdeF, AbCdef, AbcdEF, AbcdEf, AbcdeF, Abcdef
  8. (a) BBMM   (b) BBMm
  9. (a) 2 black, mule-foot : 1 black, cloven-foot   (b) 1/4 white, mule-foot : 1/4 white, cloven-foot : 1/4 black, mule-foot : 1/4 black, cloven-foot

Modified Dihybrid Ratios

  1. 1/16 GAGASS : 2/16 GAGASs : 1/16 GAGAss : 2/16 GA GOSS : 4/16 GAGOSs : 2/16 GAGOss : 1/16 GOGOSS : 2/16 GOGOSs : 1/16 GOGOss; 3/16 fuzzy, glandless : 1/16 smooth, glandless : 6/16 round gland, fuzzy : 2/16 round gland, smooth : 3/16 oval gland, fuzzy : 1/16 oval gland, smooth
  2. 1 red, polled : 1 red, horned : 2 roan, polled : 2 roan, horned : 1 white, polled : 1 white, horned
  3. 1/16 black : 1/8 black, mildly frizzled : 1/16 black, extremely frizzled : 1/8 blue : 1/4 blue, mildly frizzled : 1/8 blue, extremely frizzled : 1/16 splashed-white : 1/8 splashed-white, mildly frizzled : 1/16 splashed-white, extremely frizzled
  4. 1 black : 2 blue : 1 splashed-white : 2 blue, mildly frizzled : 2 splashed-white, mildly frizzled : 1 splashed white, extremely frizzled
  5. F1 is all oval, purple; F2 is 1/16 long, red : 1/8 long, purple : 1/16 long, white : 1/8 oval, red : 1/4 oval, purple : 1/8 oval, white : 1/16 round, red : 1/8 round, purple : 1/16 round, white
  6. Long; purple × oval; purple
  7. (a) 1/2 yellow, kinky : 1/6 yellow : 1/4 agouti, kinky : 1/12 agouti   (b) 1/3   (c) 1/6 AyAKK : 1/3 AyAKk : 1/6 AyAkk : 1/6 AAKK : 1/6 AAKk : 1/12 AAkk; 1/2 yellow, kinky : 1/6 yellow : 1/4 agouti, kinky : 1/12 agouti
  8. (a) 1/12 black, hairy : 1/6 black, halo-haired : 1/12 black : 1/6 gray, hairy :1/3 gray, halo-haired : 1/6 gray   (b) 2/3   (c) 2/3   (d) 1/8
  9. 1/3 normal : 2/3 brachyphalangic
  10. (a) 7/16   (b) 1/9
  11. (a) 4/9 plum, stubble : 2/9 plum : 2/9 stubble : 1/9 wild type   (b) 1 plum, stubble : 1 plum : 1 stubble : 1 wild type
  12. 1/12 black : 1/6 blue : 1/12 splashed-white : 1/6 black, creeper : 1/3 blue, creeper : 1/6 splashed-white, creeper

Higher Combinations

  1. (a) F1 is all tall, round, yellow; F2 is 27 tall, round, yellow : 9 tall, round, green : 9 tall, wrinkled, yellow : 9 dwarf, round, yellow : 3 tall, wrinkled, green : 3 dwarf, round, green : 3 dwarf, wrinkled, yellow : 1 dwarf, wrinkled, green   (b) 3.12%   (c) 8 round : 1 wrinkled
  2. (a) F1 is all agouti, black; F2 is 27 agouti, black : 9 agouti, black, Himalayan : 9 agouti, brown : 9 black : 3 agouti, brown, Himalayan : 3 black, Himalayan : 3 brown : 1 brown, Himalayan   (b) 4/27   (c) 25%   (d) 75%
  3. (a) 189 agouti, black : 216 agouti, black, dilute : 63 agouti, black, Himalayan : 72 agouti, black, Himalayan, dilute : 63 agouti, brown : 72 agouti, brown, dilute : 63 black : 72 black, dilute : 21 agouti, brown, Himalayan : 24 agouti, brown, Himalayan, dilute : 21 black, Himalayan : 24 black, Himalayan, dilute : 21 brown : 24 brown, dilute : 7 brown, Himalayan : 8 brown, Himalayan, dilute   (b) 1/120
  4. (a) 25 = 32   (b) 35 = 243   (c) 45 = 1024
  5. (a) One each   (b) 128   (c) 128, each with equal frequency   (d) 2187   (e) 16,384   (f) 2,392,578

Testing Genetic Ratios

  1. (a) 1   (b) 3   (c) 2   (d) 2   (e) 3  (f) 7   (g) 7
  2. (a) x2 = 0:27; p = 0:5 – 0:7; acceptable   (b) x2 = 2:67; p = 0:1 – 0:2; acceptable   (c) x2 = 5:33; p = 0:01 – 0:05; not acceptable.
  3. Yes; x2 = 1:06; p = 0:5 – 0:7; acceptable
  4. (a) x2 = 43:37; p < 0:001; not acceptable   (b) x2 = 0:000421; p > 0:95; a 2 : 1 ratio fits the data almost perfectly (c) lethal
  5. (a) x2 = 4:76; 0:10 > p > 0:05; hypothesis acceptable   (b) Monozygotic twins are estimated to be –31; the negative estimate indicates that identical sheep twins are rare provided that unlike-sex twins do not have a survival advantage over like-sex twins.
  6. Yes; x2 = 2:83; p = 0:8 – 0:9; the distribution is consistent with the assumption that boys and girls occur with equal frequency.
  7. Yes; x2 = 2:69; p = 0:7 – 0:8
  8. (a) No; x2 = 4:45; p < 0:05 ´ (b) Yes; x2 = 3:64; p > 0:05

Pedigree Analysis

  1. (a) 0   (b) 1/2  (c) 0  (d) 1/2   (e) 3/4
  2. (a) I1 = Asay; I2 = atat; II1 = ayat; III2 = ayat; III3 = Asat; II4 = ayat; III1 = atat; III2 = As – (Asay or Asat); III3 = ayat; III4 = atat   (b) 1/4   (c) 2/3
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