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Personality Review Questions for AP Psychology (page 2)

By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011

Answers and Explanations

  1. C—Reaction formation is the defense mechanism that involves acting exactly opposite of what we feel. The boy is actually sad, but acts as if he is glad.
  2. C—The ego mediates between the id and the superego, and operates on the reality principle.
  3. B—Humanists believe that humans are born good and that we are all naturally motivated to seek our full potential, but conditions of worth and our wish for society's approval sometimes make us select a less productive path.
  4. C—Rooting for the underdog is a universal theme in our collective unconscious, according to Jung. Whether it's David and Goliath or the home team who hasn't won a game all season, we instinctively align ourselves with the underdog.
  5. A—Projective tests are designed to uncover thoughts, conflicts, and feelings in the unconscious mind. The Thematic Apperception Test, with its ambiguous pictures to interpret, is a good example of such a test.
  6. B—Ideal self and real self. Rogers believed that our ideal self is what we think society wants us to be and our real self is our natural self, which is good by nature. He believed that the differences between these two account for problems that we need to overcome in order to become fully functioning.
  7. A—Nomothetic measures tend to look at common traits that characterize most people. Idiographic measures attempt to look at individuals and their unique characteristics and underlying traits.
  8. B—According to Sheldon, Bertha's profile is that of the ectomorph.
  9. D—Self-report inventories used by humanists and cognitive theorists are the most common personality tests given.
  10. E—According to Bandura, self-efficacy deals with our evaluation of our talents and abilities.
  11. B—Altruism is a cardinal trait of Mother Theresa because it seems to encompass everything that she stood for—selflessness and devotion to others. Allport believed that most people have clusters of 5 to 7 central traits, but most do not have a cardinal trait.
  12. E—Womb envy is a term coined by Karen Horney in her feminine rebuttal to Freud's penis envy of females. All the other terms are concepts of Alfred Adler's ego psychology.
  13. B—Roberto has an internal locus of control. Rotter's locus of control theory is part of his social cognitive theory that our perception of how much we are in control of our environment influences the choices we make and behaviors we follow.
  14. D—South Korea. Collective efficacy is our perception that, with collaborative effort, our group will obtain its desired outcome. Some recent research studies indicate that high collective efficacy seems to be more beneficial in collectivistic societies such as Asian societies for achievement of group goals.
  15. E—A trait is a relatively permanent and stable characteristic which can be used to predict our behavior.
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