The Physical Basis of Heredity Practice Problems
Review the following concepts if needed:
- Genetics, Cells, and Mendel's Law for Genetics
- Chromosomes for Genetics
- Cell Division and Reproduction for Genetics
- Gametogenesis for Genetics
Matching Questions Choose the one best match for each organelle (in the left column) with its function or description (in the right column). No organelle has more than one match.
|Cell Organelle||Function or Description|
|1. Mitochondria||A. Establishes polar region|
|2. Centrioles||B. May contain a photosynthetic system|
|3. Chromosome||C. Site of protein synthesis|
|4. Nucleus||D. Location of genes|
|5. Nucleolus||E. Organelle involved in protein modification and subcellular localization|
|6. Ribosome||F. Storage of excess water and other metabolic products|
|7. Endoplasmic reticulum||G. Site of major ATP synthesis|
|8. Plastid||H. Organelle containing linear chromosomes|
|9. Golgi body||I. Cytoplasmic membrane network|
|10. Vacuole||J. RNA-rich region in nucleus|
Vocabulary For each of the following definitions, give the appropriate term. Terms are single words unless indicated otherwise.
- Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome.
- Site on a chromosome to which spindle fibers attach.
- Adjective applicable to a chromosome with arms of about equal length.
- Adjective referring to the number of chromosomes in a gamete
- Specialized cell division process consisting of a reductional and an equational division.
- Division of the cytoplasm.
- The first phase of mitosis.
- The cytological structure on paired chromosomes with which genetic exchange (crossing over) is correlated.
- Chromosomes that contain enough similar genetic material to pair in meiosis.
- The period between mitotic division cycles.
Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the single most appropriate answer.
- An organelle present in animal cells but missing from plant cells is (a) a nucleolus (b) a centriole (c) a vacuole (d) a mitochondrion (e) more than one of the above
- During the meiosis I division, chromosomes divide (a) equationally (b) reductionally.
- Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in skin cells. How many autosomes would be expected in a kidney cell? (a) 46 (b) 23 (c) 47 (d) 44 (e) none of the above
- During mitosis, synapsis occurs in the phase called (a) telophase (b) anaphase (c) prophase (d) metaphase (e) none of the above
- If the genetic endowments of two nuclei that unite to produce the plant zygote are labeled A and B, and the other product of fertilization within that same embryo sac is labeled ABB, then the tube nucleus that was in the pollen tube that delivered the fertilizing male gametes must be labeled (a) A (b) AB (c) B (d) BB (e) none of the above
- A locus is best defined as (a) an alternative form of a gene (b) the position of a gene on a chromosome (c) a cellular structure composed of DNA and protein (d) a fertilized egg (e) the place on a chromosome where spindle fibers attach
- The different forms of a gene are called (a) gametes (b) loci (c) homologues (d) alleles (e) ribosomes
- Which of the following cells is normally diploid? (a) primary polar body (b) spermatid (c) primary spermatocyte (d) spermatozoan (e) secondary polar body
- Upon which two major features of chromosomes does their cytological identification depend? (a) length of chromosome and position of centromere (b) amount of DNA and intensity of staining (c) numbers of nucleoli and centromeres (d) number of chromatids and length of arms (e) chromosome thickness and length
- In oogenesis, the cell that corresponds to a spermatid is called a(an) (a) ovum (b) egg (c) secondary oocyte (d) oogonium (e) secondary polar body
1. G 2. A 3. D 4. H 5. J 6. C 7. I 8. B 9. E 10. F
- centromere or kinetochore
- chiasma or recombination nodule
- e (synapsis occurs in meiosis, not mitosis)
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