Political Revolutions Review Questions for AP World History
By Peggy J. Martin — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- The French Revolution of 1789 and the Chinese revolt of 1911 were alike in that
- they were initiated by the lower classes.
- they were not nationalist independence movements.
- they ended immediately in dictatorship.
- they failed to achieve their goals.
- they were a response to foreign intervention.
- The American and the French revolutions were alike in all the following ways EXCEPT
- they both brought increased political power for women.
- they were prompted by issues of taxation.
- they both involved representation in their respective legislatures.
- they produced documents that defined similar natural rights.
- they were based on Enlightenment thought.
- The Haitian Revolution was the only revolution of the period 1750 to 1914 that was initiated and fought by
- foreign mercenaries.
- elite classes.
- The Brazilian independence movement
- resulted in the abolition of slavery.
- produced a republic for Brazil.
- involved a prolonged struggle with Portugal.
- followed a pattern similar to that of other Latin American independence movements.
- was the result of the Napoleonic wars.
- The declining years of the Qing dynasty saw
- the influence of foreign nations.
- invasion by nomadic people north of the Great Wall.
- the long-term acceptance of the selfstrengthening movement.
- the end of the opium trade.
- the return to tradition by new dynastic rule.
- became the model for socialism in Western European nations.
- anticipated revolution in agrarian societies.
- advocated centralization of the state.
- became a factor in the French Revolution.
- saw history as a series of class struggles.
- Both the Mexican revolts of 1821 and 1910
- were initially Creole-backed movements.
- ended in the immediate establishment of a republic.
- resulted in territorial losses within a few years after the revolt.
- involved resistance to foreign influence.
- were independence movements.
- Political, economic, and social change from 1750 to 1914
- saw sweeping changes in political rights for women.
- was generally led by members of the lower classes.
- included reaction against foreign influence in China and Mexico.
- brought increased prosperity to Latin America.
- brought republican government throughout the Americas.
Answers and Explanations
- B—Neither revolution desired independence from a colonial power. The French Revolution was initiated by the bourgeoisie, and the Chinese revolt by the Western-educated middle class (A). The French Revolution ended in the ultimate dictatorship of Napoleon, whereas the Chinese revolution at first attempted to model China'sgovernment after Western republics (C). The French Revolution reached its goal of ending absolute monarchy, while the Chinese revolt ended Qing rule (D). Although the French Revolution did not involve a response to foreign intervention, the Chinese Revolution was in part a reaction against foreign involvement in China under the Qing (E).
- A—Although the French Revolution increased women's political rights somewhat until the rule of Napoleon, no political rights were gained by women as a result of the American Revolution. The French Revolution was a reaction of the Third Estate against taxation, while the American Revolution was a protest against taxation without representation in the British Parliament (B). The French revolt also involved the degree of representation of the Third Estate in the Estates- General (C). The Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen spoke of similar natural rights (D). Both were based on Enlightenment thought, especially that of Locke and Rousseau (E).
- C—The Haitian Revolution was initiated by black slaves. The other responses are incorrect.
- E—Brazil saw an opportunity to raise its status to the level of Portugal as a result of the French occupation of the Portuguese throne, a situation that ultimately led to its independence. It did not abolish slavery (A) and produced a monarchy for Brazil (B). It did not involve a prolonged struggle for independence (C), thereby following a different pattern from that of other Latin American independence movements (D).
- A—The Opium War was a case of foreign involvement in China. The Qing were the last nomadic invaders of China during the seventeenth century (B). The self-strengthening movement produced only temporary changes (C). The opium trade continued after the Opium War (D). The end of dynastic rule was a turn away from Chinese tradition (E).
- E—Marx saw history as a series of struggles between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Socialism in Europe outside Russia took on a milder form (A). Marx anticipated revolution in industrialized countries (B) and advocated overthrow, rather than centralization, of the state (C). Marxism was not defined until after the French Revolution (D).
- D—The 1821 revolution was an independence movement against Spain, while the 1910 revolution came about in part because of foreign influence during the rule of Díaz. The 1821 revolt was initially backed by mestizos, whereas the later revolt was Creole-backed from its beginning (A). The Mexican republic was established in 1824, three years after the end of the earlier revolt (B). Although the 1910 revolt did not result in territorial loss, the earlier revolution saw the separation of the Central American republics a few years later (C). The earlier revolt was an independence movement, whereas the second was a liberal revolt (E).
- C—Both the Mexican and Chinese revolts were in part reactions against foreign involvement. Women did not see significant changes in their political rights (A). Most revolutions were led by the middle classes (B). Independence did not bring increased prosperity to Latin America (D). Brazil established a monarchy after independence (E).
From 5 Steps to a 5 AP World History. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
Next Study Guide: Western Imperialism Review Questions for AP World History
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