AP World History Practice Test 2 (page 2)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 7, 2011

Answers and Explanations

  1. E—Confucianism and Daoism both arose as a reaction to the turmoil in China at the end of the Zhou dynasty. Neither recognized a deity, and both remained primarily regional belief systems of East Asia. Buddhism (A) emerged from the questions of Siddhartha Gautama concerning the suffering in the world; it spread throughout the Eastern world. Hinduism was an outgrowth of the Aryan culture (B). Islam (C) worships the god Allah, originated in the revelations of Muhammad, and spread throughout the world. Judaism (D) worships Jehovah and is a revealed religion that spread throughout the world via the Jewish diaspora.
  2. A—Both Rome and Gupta India were centralized governments, although that of Rome was more centrally organized than that of the Gupta. Roman trade concentrated more on its connections to overland routes, while Gupta Indian embraced both overland and, particularly, maritime routes (B). The Gupta Empire relied on the caste system, while the Romans relied heavily on slave labor (C). The Roman Empire deteriorated into local rule after its fall, while the aftermath of Gupta rule was the emergence of regional kingdoms in India (D). The Huns were the people who overran the Gupta Empire (E).
  3. B—Both the peoples of the Americas and those of the river valley civilizations were polytheists. Both groups of societies were also patriarchal (A). While Sumerians contributed the wheel to the societies of the Eastern Hemisphere, early American peoples relied on human muscle to accomplish their tasks (C) and had only the llama as a beast of burden (E). The livelihood of only the river valley civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere depended upon the flood patterns of rivers (D).
  4. D—Observance of the Five Pillars is key to Islam, which is the youngest of the belief systems listed. The Four Noble Truths applies to Buddhism (A), the Way to Daoism (B), and the covenant relationship first to Judaism (C), and the forgiveness of sins to Christianity (E). The correct sequence is: Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Christianity, and Islam.
  5. E—The Vikings settled in northern France, while the Arabs settled in Spain. The Vikings traded, and sometimes settled, along the rivers of Russia, while the Arabs did not (A). The Arab advance into northern France was turned back at the Battle of Tours in 732; the Vikings settled in Normandy in northern France about 1000 (B). Although the Vikings were not known for an interest in spreading learning, the Arabs preserved the Greco-Roman culture and contributed their own intellectual advances as well, especially in Spain (C). Although the Vikings created temporary settlements in North America, the Arab permanent settlements contributed to the Islamic empires (D).
  6. C—During this time period, Pacific islanders concentrated on regional trade from island to island and, therefore, did not include trade with China and Japan (D), nor with other parts of East Asia (E). European traders had not yet explored the Pacific islands (A). The Malay sailors concentrated on the Indian Ocean (B).
  7. A—Both Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta traveled throughout Southwest Asia, or the Middle East. Only Ibn Battuta traveled through North Africa (B) and Islamic Europe (D). Only Marco Polo visited central Asia (C); his travels were not so extensive as those of Ibn Battuta (E).
  8. B—The island nation of Japan carried on primarily regional trade under the shogunate. Russia had traded with the Vikings prior to the Mongol period (A), while China, East Africa, and India engaged in Indian Ocean trade (C, D, E).
  9. E—Japanese feudalism ended with the rise of the Tokugawa Shogunate and, later, the Meiji Restoration; European feudalism ended with the rise of regional governments and nation-states. Only chivalry was a reciprocal (A) and a contractual (D) relationship. Bushido was based on group loyalties (B); both emphasized personal ties (C).
  10. A—Both Indian and European women worked in producing textiles at home and in agricultural roles. In this time period, neither had opportunities for political activism or public speaking (B). European women could be guild members, but not guild leaders; Indian women had more opportunities in long-distance trade (C). Neither had opportunities to serve as scholars or physicians (D) or as religious leaders and representatives (E).
  11. B—Islam did not spread to East Asia during this time period. It had reached the other regions, with Spain as its domain in Western Europe (A).
  12. C—The societies and empires of Mexico traded as far north as the Anasazi societies of present-day southwestern United States. Agriculture was unknown to Australia during this period (A). The natives of Mesoamerica were more settled (B). Trade in Polynesia during this period was confined to trade networks between the islands (D). Polynesians did not have metal resources (E).
  13. B—The Mongol Empire was a tribute empire. Mongol influence did not reach Japan (A). Mongols, never gifted administrators, especially relied on local rulers in Persia (C). The Mongols set up a tribute empire in Russia and did not rule it directly (D). The civil service exam was not practiced under Mongol rule (E).
  14. B—Trade in Eurasia tended to move east and west along both overland and water routes, whereas that in the Americas followed a more north-south pattern. Trade in the Americas was overland (A). Both Eurasian and American (jade and turquoise) trade involved gemstones (C). The Americas did not exchange major world religions (D). Eurasian trade involved the assistance of nomadic peoples such as the Mongols (E).
  15. A—The passage describes Captain Cook's meeting the Hawaiians, who lived in Pacific islands noted for their lack of deposits of metals.
  16. A—Although the other response choices were also produced in the Americas, sugar was the major crop of plantation agriculture.
  17. B—Prior to the Columbian Exchange, the isolation of the Americas kept the Western Hemisphere largely free of the diseases of the rest of the world. Africa and Asia also benefited from the exchange of American crops (A). Native Americans tended to be unimpressed with foods of the Eastern Hemisphere (C). Diseases were carried from the Eastern to the Western Hemisphere (D). Native Americans did not serve as a permanent labor force because of their high mortality from European diseases (E).
  18. D—The Aztecs were told to establish their capital city at the site where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus and holding a snake. According to legend, they found such a site in Lake Texcoco, where they built the capital of Tenochtitlán.
  19. D—At the beginning of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan was open to Western technology, then later suspicious of foreigners and closed trade with the West. Europeans came to dominate Indian Ocean trade more and more as the period progressed (A). The Ottoman Empire continued to depend on the export of raw materials (B). European trade supplied the Chinese with silver (C). African rulers became increasingly dependent on the exchange of slaves for European manufactured goods (E).
  20. A—Whereas some of North American tribes were farmers, many of them were nomadic; most Mesoamerican societies were settled agrarian communities. Both worshipped a variety of gods of nature (B). Mesoamericans and North Americans were sometimes trade partners (C). The Moundbuilders of North America and the Mesoamerican societies built large ceremonial pyramids and other structures (D). Only the Mesoamerican societies had a written language in the form of glyphs (E).
  21. A—Russian serfs were bound to the land, while slaves were bound to their masters. Russian serfs enjoyed some personal freedoms (B). Serfdom kept Russia an agricultural and economically backward region, whereas slavery contributed to economic prosperity (C). Slaves were sometimes allowed to purchase their freedom or were freed by their masters (D). Only slavery was based on skin color (E).
  22. D—The Aztec Empire was rich in natural resources and enjoyed a complex infrastructure at the time of the conquest. The Spanish conquest was aided by Mesoamericans conquered by the Aztecs (A). Smallpox took the lives of thousands of Aztecs (B). Mesoamerican traditions included the legend of Quetzalcóatl; the Spanish expedition was received as the possible return of this god (C). Spanish weaponry was far more advanced than that of the Aztecs (E).
  23. B—Haiti's revolution, led by black slaves, led to its independence in 1804.
  24. D—"Bourgeoisie" also refers to the members of the Third Estate who initiated the French Revolution. The ancien regime refers to the old government before the French Revolution (A). The term "bourgeoisie" did not apply to any group associated with the Chinese or Haitian revolutions (B, C). British sympathizers during the American Revolution were known as "Tories" (E).
  25. E—Social Darwinism, the belief that the fittest in society were destined to prosper, was used to justify imperialism. Laissez-faire economics involved allowing the economy to be regulated by the laws of supply and demand rather than government intervention (A). Conservatism was a political philosophy advocating strong central, and often monarchical, government (B), whereas liberalism advocated political rights and parliamentary government (D). Romanticism was a literary and artistic movement that valued emotion in its presentations (C).
  26. D—Footbinding and corsets restricted female activity by making activity painful. Both were more common among women of elite classes (A) and gave women a privileged status (B). Women who participated in these customs were incapable of working in the fields (C). Both customs were considered a mark of female attractiveness (E).
  27. E—Slavery has been present throughout history, and continues to the present. Regions where slavery currently is practiced include Africa, the Middle East, and Russia.
  28. E—The U.S. expedition to Japan and its powerful gunboats convinced Japan that long-distance trade was in its best economic and political interests. Rather than fearing Great Britain, Japan purchased modern warships from the British (A), which it then used to impose its power on Korea (B). The Meiji government desired reform (C). Japanese leaders in the Meiji government restored its imperial rulers and set up a parliament (D).
  29. A—Meroë was known for its knowledge of iron smelting. Africans traveled long distances to Meroë to trade for tools and weapons of iron.
  30. E—Extraterritoriality granted foreigners exemption from the laws of the land where they lived. The other choices do not define an element of extraterritoriality.
  31. E—The size of the AIDS patient in relation to the WHO physician suggests the enormity of the disease in relation to the effectiveness of the treatment. The patient is accepting the treatment willingly (A, C). The cartoon does not suggest the existence of moral judgments (B). The size of the AIDS figure suggests that the WHO is not winning the AIDS war (D).
  32. C—Colonialism increased nationalist sentiments among subject peoples. Imperialists from across the globe developed a superior attitude toward their subjects (A). Global trade (B) and migration (D) increased tremendously. An example of choice (E) is British transformation of cotton production into a major cash crop.
  33. D—Although Haiti in Latin America (B) has a high incidence of AIDS, sub-Saharan Africa is most widely affected by the disease. The other choices have a lower incidence of the disease (A, C, E).
  34. B—The Vietnamese were immediately drawn into the Cold War, with the northern government backed by Communist China and the South by the United States. The French hoped to use its colony to regain the status it had lost through the German occupation of France during World War II (A). The Vietnamese under Ho Chi Minh issued a declaration of independence modeled after that of the United States (C). The Geneva Conference divided Vietnam into North and South at the seventeenth parallel (D). Diem's government, backed by the United States, was unpopular with the South Vietnamese (E).
  35. B—The former Ottoman territories became mandates, largely under British control. Europe's colonists supported the war in hopes of gaining independence afterward (A). The following empires fell as a result of the war: Russia, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman, and Germany's Second Reich (C). Europe's economic decline led to a decline in world power (D). The new state of Yugoslavia embraced the ethnic diversity of the Balkan states and their nationalist aspirations as well (E).
  36. E—Colonialism destroyed local economies. Globalization, not resistance to it, had generated incredible wealth for some nations (A). Independent non-Western nations have tried to raise economic levels but largely have failed (B). There has been a depletion of resources worldwide (C). The Green Revolution has increased agricultural productivity, especially in Asian nations (D).
  37. B—Malay merchants journeyed across the Indian Ocean, transmitting their language and the cultivation of the banana in East Africa. Some individuals traveled the entire distance of the Silk Roads (A). Central Asians participated in Silk Roads trade (C), and sea routes connected Egypt with Silk Roads trade (E). There was a trade imbalance between Rome and China, with the Romans more interested in Chinese trade items than China was in Roman goods (D).
  38. B—The map illustrates the location of spheres of influence in China in the nineteenth century. The Qing dynasty had been overthrown by the 1930s, making response (A) incorrect. The Taiping Rebellion was fought only in southern China (C). The areas are not colonial locations (D). The battles of the Opium War took place primarily at sea (E).
  39. D—Although authorities disagree on their origin, the crescent and the star have been used to represent Islam.
  40. A—The Vedas, oral literature introduced by the Aryans, became the basis of Hindu belief. The caste system, which was based on skin color (E), developed shortly after the arrival of the Aryans about 1500 B.C.E. (B). Reincarnation could produce movement to a higher or lower caste, depending on one's karma (C). Within the present life, however, there was almost no opportunity to move between castes (D).
  41. D—Patriarchal systems have in common the belief in female inferiority. They do not necessarily endorse mistreatment of women (A) nor their seclusion behind veils (C). Some women in patriarchal societies are allowed to engage in business activities (B) or acquire an education (E).
  42. C—The inclusion of American Indian figures suggests that it is from Latin America. The altar portrayed is located in Balboa, Panama.
  43. D—All three faiths worship only one god. Only Christianity accepts Jesus as the Messiah (A). Only Islam recognizes Muhammad as a prophet (B). None requires pilgrimage to Jerusalem (C). Judaism and Islam forbid the eating of pork (E).
  44. D—The Italian peninsula was connected to major trade routes throughout all but the last years of the period. Islam was not in existence (A). Australia, Polynesia, and Japan were involved in regional trade only (B, C, E).
  45. D—Ethiopia, influenced by the Christian Kingdom of Axum, provided the oldest continuous Christian communities in Africa. Morocco was and remains a heavily Islamic area (B), whereas Christianity spread to Nigeria (A) and the Congo (C) during the period of the new imperialism. The Dutch brought Christianity to South Africa in the seventeenth century (E).
  46. C—The Chinese continued to remain active in regional trade. The scholar-gentry (B) put pressure on the Ming government to save money (A) to repair the Great Wall (D) in order to repel the threat of future Mongol invasions (E).
  47. B—Sanskrit, the language of the Aryans, was transmitted through Aryan migration. Hindi developed later in Indian history (A). Arabic developed on the Arabian peninsula (C), whereas Mandarin is a Chinese tongue (D) and Farsi the language of Persia (E).
  48. C—The Mongols destroyed the Persian underground irrigation system. Their nomadic society was governed by kinship groups (A). They employed artisans to work for them in the lands they conquered (B). The Mongols preferred to use local administrators to run their conquered territories rather than establish strong central governments (D). Twice in the thirteenth century, Mongol attempts at invading Japan were thwarted by "divine" winds called kamikaze (E).
  49. A—The Mongols and Ottoman Turks had no contacts with each other. In 1711, Berbers conquered Spain; their occupation of Spain contributed Islamic learning to Europe (B). The Ottoman Turks conquered Byzantium, contributing their culture (C). Aryans conquered Indus valley peoples, contributing the Sanskrit language and the Vedas, which became the basis for Hinduism (D). Spaniards conquered the Aztecs; some Spaniards subsequently intermarried with the Aztecs (E).
  50. B—During the Crusades, Muslims taught Christians to refine the sugar from sugarcane. Responses (A), (C), and (D) are correct. The knowledge of sugarcane and refined sugar produced the growth of sugar plantations in the Western Hemisphere (E).
  51. C—Runaway slaves, or maroons, often founded their own self-governing communities. Many African languages survived in the form of creole tongues (A). Slaves often refused to do work or ran away rather than comply (B). Slave revolts rarely ended in emancipation, with the Haitian revolt an exception (D). Plantation communities in North America depended more on natural increase than did those in Latin America (E).
  52. E—The Muslim Ottomans and the wealthy Italian city-states dominated Mediterranean trade in the sixteenth century. This dominance prompted Portugal and Spain to seek routes around Africa and across the Atlantic to reach Eastern trade routes (A, C). French explorers sought a northwest passage through North America to reach Eastern routes (B). Jerusalem was no longer under Christian control (D).
  53. D—Some Asian goods remained in Mexico, while the majority made their way to Spain to be sold throughout Europe (E). The galleons linked trade from China to the Philippines and to the Americas (A). Choices (B) and (C) are true of the Manila galleons.
  54. C—Under the Tokugawa Shogunate, the Japanese emperor served as a figurehead. The Russian tsar (A), Qing emperor (B), French king (D), and Ottoman sultan (E) exercised absolute rule over their subject peoples.
  55. B—Throughout the period, American crops spread throughout most parts of the globe, producing population increases. Although the Ottomans in the Middle East (A), Western Europe (C), and China (D) were largely agricultural lands, the volume of new crops did not match that of the Americas. Japan's geography allows for very little farmland (E).
  56. B—Since the tenth century, Russia had traded extensively with the Byzantine Empire and had adopted the Eastern Orthodox religion. The conquest of Byzantium in 1453 did not diminish Russia's cultural ties with Byzantium, nor forge close ties between Russia and the Ottomans (A). Mongol conquests had been eliminated in the fourteenth century (C). Not until the last year of the seventeenth century did Russia begin to westernize to a degree (D). Russia did not have cultural ties with North America (E).
  57. B—In the eighteenth century, Mughal collapse allowed the British to extend their commercial interests to political influence on India. The Portuguese port of Goa became a center for Christian missionaries (A). Indian Muslims reacted positively to Mughal rule (C), while Hindus resented Mughal persecution of members of their faith (D). The Mughals allowed foreign trading stations and merchant colonies (E).
  58. C—Agriculture in Europe was based on small farms. Europeans established plantations in the Indian Ocean islands (A). North America established cotton, rice, and tobacco plantations (B), whereas Southeast Asia was a region of rubber plantations (D). Sugarcane plantations were established by the Portuguese and Spanish in the Atlantic islands off the northwest coast of Africa (E).
  59. B.—Greece and Serbia, both former Ottoman territories, gained their independence in 1839 and 1861, respectively. The Ottomans kept Anatolia (A), but lost Egypt to Napoleon's France (C). The Ottomans lost territory to Russia in central Asia and the Caucasus (D). Ottoman technology was falling behind that of Europe in this period (E).
  60. D—The Russian economy was unable to support an enlarging empire. The serfs were emancipated in 1861 (A). Russification failed to unite the various Russian ethnic groups under one culture (B). Russia expanded into Ottoman territory (C), but its technology made it inferior to the industrialized Western European nations (E).
  61. B—Siam (present-day Thailand) was left independent to serve as a buffer state between French Indochina and British-controlled Burma. The other statements are true.
  62. D—Both the Ottoman and Russian empires were ethnic mixtures, especially of Muslims, Christians, and Jews. The Ottoman Empire was one of numerous nations within its borders, and was not, therefore, a nation-state (A). Neither empire had a socialist government in the nineteenth century (B). Although the Ottomans generally tolerated religious diversity, the Russians persecuted Jews (C). Power in the Ottoman Empire lay in the sultan, whereas in Russia the tsar was the authoritarian ruler (E).
  63. B—Both Britain and China had urban areas with financial institutions. Both experienced population growth in the eighteenth century (A). Although both had abundant supplies of coal, those of Great Britain were much more easily accessible than those of China (C). Both possessed a number of navigable rivers and canal systems (D). Great Britain, but not China, controlled colonies that supplied raw materials (E).
  64. E—The Argentine gaucho developed a culture and mystique similar to that of the U.S. cowboy. Latin American society was divided into classes based on color and ethnicity (A). Indentured servants from Asia and European migrants went to Latin America (B). Intellectuals produced works based on European and U.S. values (C). Latin American society was male-dominated (D).
  65. D—The quotation is from the Truman Doctrine, issued in support of the anticommunist struggles of Greece and Turkey. The Monroe Doctrine was a "hands-off " policy against European colonization in the Americas issued by the United States (A). The Roosevelt Corollary broadened the Monroe Doctrine to assert the U.S. right to police Latin American nations having difficulties with foreign powers (B). The Balfour Declaration was the initial step in granting a Jewish homeland (C). The Brezhnev Doctrine denied the right of any nation to leave the Warsaw Pact (E).
  66. B—Containment was the U.S. Cold War policy of preventing further expansion of Soviet Communism. Nonalignment was the practice of some developing nations of not seeking assistance from either the United States or Soviet Union (A). Appeasement is the policy of giving in to the threat of aggression, such as at the Munich Conference (C). Nationalism is extreme pride in one's nation or culture (D). Brinkmanship was the Cold War policy of the United States and the Soviet Union, which frequently brought the world to the brink of war (E).
  67. C—African and Asian women received increased political rights as a result of their participation alongside men in colonial independence movements. Soviet and Chinese women bore arms (A). Soviet women also were given opportunities to work outside the home (B). Women in industrial societies also tended to work in low-paying jobs (D). Confucian values continue to reinforce patriarchal relationships (E).
  68. B—The early years of the twenty-first century witnessed a global energy crisis, created in part because of the increasing energy demands of the industries of India and China. The other responses are correct. Alternative energy sources include ethanol and wind power (A). In 2008, utilization of Russia's energy resources was challenged by Georgia and Ukraine (C). India, once the primary location of outsourced industry, lost some of its sites to China, the Philippines, and Panama (D). Financial problems in the United States, especially in the mortgage and banking industries, contributed to a global economic recession and a decrease in world trade (E).
  69. C—Mao's policies ended arranged marriages and encouraged women to acquire an education and enter the professions. Although Deng Xiaoping allowed Chinese students to attend Western universities, he suppressed student rebellion at Tiananmen Square (E). Mao Zedong's land redistribution policies were popular with peasants (A). The Great Leap Forward was actually a backward leap economically (B). The Cultural Revolution closed universities and killed opponents of Mao (D).
  70. C—"Prague Spring" refers to liberal challenges to Soviet power in Czechoslovakia in 1968. "Velvet revolution" refers to the relatively smooth transition of power from communism to democracy in Czechoslovakia in 1990.
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