Grammar and Public Speaking Success Help
Grammar and Public Speaking Success
In this section, we will continue to discuss grammar usage for the purpose of effective public speaking. If you recall, usage refers to the rules that govern the form of the words we use and how we string those words together in sentences. Remember, that correct grammar and usage are essential for clear and effective communication. In this section, you will review the following areas of effective grammar usage:
- Pronouns - Personal and Indefinite
- Pronoun Agreement and Consistency
- Possessive Pronouns
- Adjectives and Adverbs
- Comparative and Superlative Adjectives and Advebs
- Prepositional Idioms
- Mechanics and Punctuation
- Punctuation Guidelines
- Comma Rules
Pronouns - Personal and Indefinite
Pronouns replace nouns. This keeps us from having to repeat names and objects over and over. But pronouns can be a bit tricky at times. This section reviews the different kinds of pronouns and the rules they follow.
Personal pronouns refer to specific people or things. They can be either singular (I) or plural (we); they can be subjects (I) or objects (me).
Pronoun mistakes are often made by using the subject form when you really need the object form. Here are two guidelines to follow:
- Always use the object pronoun in a prepositional phrase. Pronouns and nouns in prepositional phrases are always objects.
- Always use the subject pronoun in a than construction (comparison). When a pronoun follows than, it is usually part of a clause that omits the verb in order not to repeat unnecessarily.
He promised to bring a souvenir for Betty and me.
Please keep this between us.
I realize that Alonzo is more talented than I. [than I am]
Sandra is much more reliable than he. [than he is]
Unlike personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, such as anybody and everyone, don't refer to a specific person. The following indefinite pronouns are always singular and require singular verbs:
- Everybody has a chance to win.
- Neither child admits to eating the cookies.
- Has anyone seen my keys?
The following indefinite pronouns are always plural:
- both few many several
- Both sound like good options.
- Only a few are left.
These indefinite pronouns can be singular or plural, depending upon the noun or pronoun to which they refer:
- all any most none some
- Some of the money is counterfeit.
- Some of the coins are valuable.
- None of the animals have been fed.
- All of the bread is moldy.
Pronoun Agreement and Consistency
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