Chemistry Rapid Review for AP Biology
For a more thorough review of the terminologies below, review the following concepts:
- Elements, Compounds, Atoms, and Ions for AP Biology
- Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Proteins for AP Biology
- Enzymes and Reactions for AP Biology
Try to rapidly review the following material:
Organic compounds: contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs (carbohydrates).
Functional groups: amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH), phosphate (PO4), sulfhydryl (SH).
Fat: glycerol + 3 fatty acids.
Saturated fat: bad for you; animals have it; solidifies at room temperature.
Unsaturated fat: better for you, plants have it; liquifies at room temperature.
Steroids: lipids whose structures resemble chicken-wire fence. Include cholesterol and sex hormones.
Phospholipids: glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate. Phospholipids make up membrane bilayers of cells. They have hydrophobic interiors and hydrophilic exteriors.
Carbohydrates: Energy and structural. Monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose), storage polysaccharides (starch [plants], glycogen [animals]), structural polysaccharides (chitin [fungi], cellulose [arthropods]).
Proteins: made in ribosomes out of amino acids; serve many functions (e.g., transport, enzymes, cell signals, receptor molecules, structural components, and channels).
Enzymes: catalytic proteins that react in an induced-fit fashion with substrates to speed up the rate of reactions by lowering the activation energy. Enzyme effectiveness is affected by changes in pH, temperature, and substrate and enzyme concentrations.
Competitive inhibition: inhibitor resembles substrate and binds to active site.
Noncompetitive inhibition: inhibitor binds elsewhere on enzyme; alters active site so that substrate cannot bind.
pH: logarithmic scale 0–7 acidic, 7 neutral, 7–14 basic (alkaline); pH 4 is 10 times more acidic than pH 5.
Hydrolysis reaction: break down compounds by adding water.
Dehydration reaction: two components brought together, producing H2O.
Endergonic reaction: reaction that requires input of energy.
Exergonic reaction: reaction that gives off energy.
Redox reaction: electron transfer reactions.
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