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# Phase Diagrams and Phase Changes for AP Chemistry

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Feb 2, 2011

Practice problems for these concepts can be found at:

### Phase Diagrams

The equilibrium that exists between a liquid and its vapor is just one of several that can exist between states of matter. A phase diagram is a graph representing the relationship of a substance's states of matter to temperature and pressure. The diagram allows us to predict which state of matter a substance will assume at a certain combination of temperature and pressure. Figure 12.4 shows a general form of the phase diagram.

Note that the diagram has three general areas corresponding to the three states of matter—solid, liquid, and gas. The line from A to C represents the solid's change in vapor pressure with changing temperature, for the sublimation equilibrium. The A-to-D line represents the variation in the melting point with varying pressure. The A-to-B line represents the variation of a liquid's vapor pressure with varying pressure. The B point shown on this phase diagram is called the critical point of the substance, the point beyond which the gas and liquid phases are indistinguishable from each other. At or beyond this critical point, no matter how much pressure is applied, the gas cannot be condensed into a liquid. Point A is the substance's triple point, the combination of temperature and pressure at which all three states of matter can exist together. The phase diagram for water is shown in Figure 12.5.

For each of the phase transitions, there is an associated enthalpy change or heat of transition. For example, there are heats of vaporization, fusion, sublimation, and so on.

### Relationship of Intermolecular Forces to Phase Changes

The intermolecular forces can affect phase changes to a great degree. The stronger the intermolecular forces present in a liquid, the more kinetic energy must be added to convert it into a gas. Conversely, the stronger the intermolecular forces between the gas particles, the easier it will be to condense the gas into a liquid. In general, the weaker the intermolecular forces, the higher the vapor pressure. The same type of reasoning can be used about the other phase equilibria, in general, the stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the heats of transition.

Example: Based on intermolecular forces, predict which will have the higher vapor pressure and higher boiling point, water or dimethyl ether, CH3–O–CH3.

Answer: Dimethyl ether will have the higher vapor pressure and the lower boiling point.

Explanation: Water is a polar substance with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Dimethyl ether is a polar material with weaker intermolecular forces (dipole–dipole). It will take much more energy to vaporize water, thus, water has a lower vapor pressure and higher boiling point.

Practice problems for these concepts can be found at:

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