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Research Methods Rapid Review for AP Psychology (page 2)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011

mode—most frequently occurring score in a set of research data ("quick and dirty").

median—the middle score when a set of data is ordered by size.

mean—the arithmetic average of a set of scores.

  • Variability—the spread or dispersion of a set of research data or distribution.

Range—the difference between the largest score and the smallest score ("quick and dirty").

Standard deviation (SD)—measures the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set.

  • Normal distribution—bell-shaped curve that represents data about how lots of human characteristics are dispersed in the population.
  • Percentile score—the percentage of scores at or below a particular score.
  • Correlation coefficient (r)—a statistical measure of the degree of relatedness or association between two sets of data that ranges from –1 to +1.
  • Inferential statistics—statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions.
  • Statistical significance (p)—the condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is less than 1 in 20 (p < .05) according to some psychologists, or less than 1 in 100 (p < .01) according to those with more stringent standards.
  • Ethical guidelines—suggested rules for acting responsibly and morally when conducting research or in clinical practice.
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