Cells Review Questions for AP Biology (page 2)
Review the following concepts if needed:
- Types of Cells and Organelles for AP Biology
- Cell Membranes and Types of Cell Transport for AP Biology
For questions 1–4, please use the following answer choices:
- Cell wall
- Golgi apparatus
- This organelle is present in plant cells, but not animal cells.
- Absence of enzymes from this organelle can lead to storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease.
- This organelle is the host for the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation of respiration.
- This organelle is synthesized in the nucleolus of the cell.
- Which of the following best describes the fluid mosaic model of membranes?
- The membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins of various lengths and sizes located on the exterior portions of the membrane.
- The membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins of various lengths and sizes located in the interior of the membrane.
- The membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins of uniform lengths and sizes located in the interior of the membrane.
- The membrane contains a phospholipid bilayer with proteins of various lengths and sizes interspersed among the phospholipids.
- The membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins of uniform length and size interspersed among the phospholipids.
- Which of the following types of cell transport requires energy?
- The movement of a particle across a selectively permeable membrane down its concentration gradient
- The movement of a particle across a selectively permeable membrane against its concentration gradient
- The movement of water down its concentration gradient across selectively permeable membranes
- The movement of a sodium ion from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
- The movement of a particle across a selectively permeable membrane with the assistance of the membrane's transport proteins
- Which of the following structures is present in prokaryotic cells?
- Cell wall
- Golgi apparatus
- Which of the following represents an incorrect description of an organelle's function?
- Chloroplast: the site of photosynthesis and energy production in plant cells
- Peroxisome: organelle that produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product of reactions involved in the breakdown of fatty acids, and detoxification of alcohol in the liver
- Golgi apparatus: structure to which proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules are sent to be modified by the addition of sugars and other molecules to form glycoproteins
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum: membrane bound organelle lacking ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface, involved in lipid synthesis, detoxification, and carbohydrate metabolism.
- Nucleus: the control center in eukaryotic cells, which acts as the site for replication, transcription, and posttranscriptional modification of RNA
- The destruction of which of the following would most cripple a cell's ability to undergo cell division?
- Intermediate filaments
- Actin fibers
- Keratin fibers
- Which of the following can easily diffuse across a selectively permeable membrane?
- Large uncharged polar molecules
- Charged ions
Answers and Explanations
- A—Cell walls exist in plant cells and prokaryotic cells, but not animal cells. They function to shape and protect cells.
- D—The lysosome acts like the stomach of the cell. It contains enzymes that break down proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. Absence of these enzymes can lead to storage disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease.
- B—The mitochondrion is the power plant of the cell. This organelle specializes in the production of ATP and hosts the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
- C—The ribosome is an organelle made in the nucleolus that serves as the host for protein synthesis in the cell. It is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
- D—The fluid mosaic model says that proteins can extend all the way through the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane, and that these proteins are of various sizes and lengths.
- B—Answer choice B is the definition of active transport, which requires the input of energy. Facilitated diffusion (answer choice E), simple diffusion (answer choices A and D), and osmosis (answer choice C) are all passive processes that do not require energy input.
- C—Prokaryotes do not contain many organelles, but they do contain cell walls.
- D—This is the description of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. I know that this is a tricky question, but I wanted you to review the distinction between the two types of endoplasmic reticulum.
- C—Microtubules play an enormous role in cell division. They make up the spindle apparatus that works to pull apart the cells during mitosis (Chapter 5). A loss of microtubules would cripple the cell division process. Actin fibers (answer choice D) are the building blocks of microfilaments (answer choice A), which are involved in muscular contraction. Keratin fibers (answer choice E) are the building blocks of intermediate filaments (answer choice B), which function as reinforcement for the shape and position of organelles in the cell.
- E—Lipids are the only substances listed that are able to freely diffuse across selectively permeable membranes.
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