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Cells Review Questions for AP Biology (page 2)

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Oct 24, 2011

Answers and Explanations

  1. A—Cell walls exist in plant cells and prokaryotic cells, but not animal cells. They function to shape and protect cells.
  2. D—The lysosome acts like the stomach of the cell. It contains enzymes that break down proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. Absence of these enzymes can lead to storage disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease.
  3. B—The mitochondrion is the power plant of the cell. This organelle specializes in the production of ATP and hosts the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
  4. C—The ribosome is an organelle made in the nucleolus that serves as the host for protein synthesis in the cell. It is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  5. D—The fluid mosaic model says that proteins can extend all the way through the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane, and that these proteins are of various sizes and lengths.
  6. B—Answer choice B is the definition of active transport, which requires the input of energy. Facilitated diffusion (answer choice E), simple diffusion (answer choices A and D), and osmosis (answer choice C) are all passive processes that do not require energy input.
  7. C—Prokaryotes do not contain many organelles, but they do contain cell walls.
  8. D—This is the description of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. I know that this is a tricky question, but I wanted you to review the distinction between the two types of endoplasmic reticulum.
  9. C—Microtubules play an enormous role in cell division. They make up the spindle apparatus that works to pull apart the cells during mitosis (Chapter 5). A loss of microtubules would cripple the cell division process. Actin fibers (answer choice D) are the building blocks of microfilaments (answer choice A), which are involved in muscular contraction. Keratin fibers (answer choice E) are the building blocks of intermediate filaments (answer choice B), which function as reinforcement for the shape and position of organelles in the cell.
  10. E—Lipids are the only substances listed that are able to freely diffuse across selectively permeable membranes.

 

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