Rise of Classical Civilizations Review Questions for AP World History
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- All of the following Chinese traditions and achievements began under the Han dynasty EXCEPT
- expansion into Central Asia.
- paper manufacture.
- the civil service exam.
- Confucian philosophy.
- bureaucratic government.
- The roots of classical India included
- the Aryan written language, or Sanskrit.
- the egalitarian Aryan society.
- Aryan agricultural knowledge.
- a society united by jati.
- Vedic traditional literature.
- From the time of the Roman republic to the Pax Romana
- Rome became increasingly democratic.
- the Roman civilization became increasingly weaker.
- the territory of Rome continued to expand.
- Roman citizenship became increasingly rare.
- Greek influence upon Rome became less pronounced.
- Under both the Han and Roman empires
- imperial roads were connected to the Silk Roads.
- new territories were added to the empires.
- a time of peace settled over both empires.
- enduring cultural traditions were established.
- all of the above.
- The Hellenistic empire of Alexander
- continued the competition with Persia begun under the Greek poleis.
- was successful in curbing foreign influence upon Greece.
- produced theories that accurately explained the nature of the universe.
- blended Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cultures.
- strengthened its hold upon the Mediterranean world after Alexander's death.
- Under Gupta India
- Arabic numerals originated in India.
- slavery increased.
- Hinduism and Buddhism became the official religions of India.
- the government of India became more centralized.
- the status of women improved.
- The Persians
- were noted for their harsh treatment toward conquered peoples.
- continued the traditions of ancient Mesopotamia.
- introduced a new religion similar to the structure of Hinduism.
- failed to establish a unified empire.
- focused their commercial activity on trade with China.
- Greek society
- was unified by the geography of the Greek peninsula.
- was disrupted by the conquest of Alexander.
- was extended through overseas colonization.
- extended the democratic ideal by relying on free labor alone.
- organized its faith around a monotheistic religion.
Answers and Explanations
- D—Confucian philosophy was introduced after the fall of the Zhou dynasty. The Han dynasty expanded Chinese territory, including adding territory from Central Asia (A). Paper manufacture was developed (B) and the civil service exam was (C) introduced under the Han. Chinese government under the Han depended on the use of administrators to assist in governing its vast empire (E).
- E—The traditions of the Vedas became an integral part of Indian society. Sanskrit, the language of the Aryans, was originally an oral language only (A). Aryan society consisted of a number of classes based on skin color, which would become the foundation of the Hindu caste system (B). Aryans were nomadic peoples who learned of agriculture from the Dravidian people of India (C). The society of classical India was divided by the jati, or subcastes of the Hindu caste system (D).
- C—The territory of the Roman Empire expanded greatly during this time period. Rome became less democratic as the empire evolved (A). The Pax Romana marked the height of Roman civilization; decline began after this period (B). During this period, inhabitants of nearby Roman provinces were offered citizenship (D). Roman culture continued to preserve the Hellenistic traditions on which it was built (E).
- E—All of the above. Roman roads connected to the Silk Roads, allowing trade between the Roman Empire and Han China (A). Both empires expanded significantly during their duration (B). Both experienced a time of relative peace when their respective cultures flourished (C), allowing the establishment of enduring traditions in philosophy, language, and government (D).
- D—Alexander united the cultures of both Greece and the Middle East, particularly Persia, in his empire. Competition between Greece and Persia, therefore, was not a characteristic of his empire (A). The nature of Alexander's empire was to blend foreign cultures with that of the Greeks (B). Ptolemy embraced the geocentric view (C). Alexander's empire was divided by his generals and did not continue after his death (E).
- A—Arabic numerals originated in Gupta India but were given their name because they were carried to the Western world by Arab caravans. The Hindu caste system lessened the need for slavery (B). Although the Gupta tolerated Buddhism, they embraced Hinduism as their own religion and promoted its acceptance (C). The Indian government was less centralized under the Gupta than it had been under Mauryan rulers (D). Women had a more inferior status, exemplified by the practice of sati (E).
- B—The Persian conquest of Mesopotamia continued the transmission of Mesopotamian culture. They were noted for tolerance toward conquered peoples who did not rebel against Persian rule (A). In contrast to Hinduism, the new religion of Zoroastrianism was a religion of rewards and punishments in the afterlife (C). The Persians unified their empire through the Royal Road (D), which focused on trade with neighboring peoples in India, Southwest Asia, and Egypt (E).
- C—Colonization spread the knowledge of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean world. The mountains of the Greek peninsula prevented Greeks from uniting (A). Alexander continued the traditions of Greece (B). Greek society relied heavily on slave labor (D). Its religion was polytheistic, with gods and goddesses who displayed human characteristics (E).
From 5 Steps to a 5 AP World History. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
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