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Sentence Structure Practice Exercises 2 (page 3)

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Updated on Sep 28, 2011

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  1. d. The word yet suggests that a condition—I have no blue shirts—is contrary to one's expectations. One would expect the speaker to own blue shirts if blue is his favorite color.
  2. b. Most of the choices suggest cause and effect; Polly is conceited because she is bright. Only choice b provides the needed contrast; she is bright, but she is also conceited.
  3. c. The word so suggests a logical relationship. It is logical that tomorrow will be Saturday if yesterday was Thursday. Notice that choice d makes the same logical connection, but it begins with a conjunction (since). Remember that conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence, and therefore should not be used at the beginning of a sentence where there are not two parts to join together.
  4. c. The conjunctive adverb therefore establishes the causal relationship between the number of babies in the neighborhood and the neighborhood's nickname.
  5. a. The transitional word however correctly establishes a contrast between the large number of stores in the shopping mall and the absence of a pet shop.
  6. a. The transitional word furthermore correctly indicates the addition of one negative trait to another. Choice d is incorrect because not everyone who is unreliable has a difficult personality.
  7. a. The conjunction but means on the contrary, and indicates that the two negatives in the first main clause will be followed by their opposite or opposites in the second: Never eat candy or ice cream … (but) do drink soda.
  8. c. The conjunction but indicates that the first main clause will be followed by something that indicates an opposite or contrast: is definitely unpleasant … (but) is not as unpleasant as.
  9. d. The conjunction so correctly indicates the causality: The subject of the sentence always has a big party because she loves celebrating her birthday. Choice a indicates causality but is ungrammatical.
  10. b. The conjunction yet prepares the reader for a contrast: is not usually … (yet) it can. Choice c is unclear.
  11. d. The conjunction and in this sentence indicates also. Choice a is wrong because it is a sentence fragment. Choice b makes no sense; choice c prepares the reader for a contrast but fails to deliver: narcolepsy is occurs in both main clauses.
  12. b. The conjunction yet prepares the reader for a contrast: much interest throughout the ages … (yet) scientific study … is … new. Choices a and c are incomplete sentences.
  13. a. Correct as is. This sentence requires the same form (parallelism) between the verbs welcome and have, and choice a is the only sentence that does this (welcoming and having).
  14. c. All the choices begin with dependent clauses except choice c.
  15. b. The word however functions as a conjunctive adverb in this sentence. Conjunctive adverbs should be preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma.
  16. a. Correct as is. This is the only choice that does not have a faulty subordination. The first part of the sentence is an independent clause; the second part is a dependent clause. Choice a is correct because the dependent clause is correctly introduced by the relative pronoun which.
  17. e. This is the only choice that does not contain repetition or wordiness. In choices a, c, and d, well known, prominent, famous, and renown mean the same thing; in choice b, a painter obviously lived and painted.
  18. c. This sentence consists of two independent clauses, each of which could stand on its own as a complete sentence. The two clauses should be separated by a semicolon.
  19. a. Correct as is.
  20. d. The phrase growling fiercely is a nonessential clause, since the sentence would still be complete without it. It should be set off by commas.
  21. d. The comparison in this sentence between the United States and Japan requires as well as. Choice d does this while at the same time creating a clear and logical sentence.
  22. a. Correct as is. A comma is needed before a coordinating conjunction and after a subordinating clause; choice a is the only one that does both.
  23. d. In this complex sentence, choice d is the only choice that results in a complete sentence. The other choices are sentence fragments.
  24. b.   This is the only choice in which the sentence construction is clear and unambiguous. In choices a and c, the sentence reads as though the ingredients were making the torte. In choice e, no one is making the torte. Choice d is incorrect because there is a shift in tense from present (making) to past perfect (should have used).
  25. a.   Correct as is. The phrase rather than the rear is a nonessential clause, and is preceded and followed by commas.
  26. e.   This is the only choice that does not contain excessive wordiness or a redundancy. In choice a, the phrase the fifth of five is redundant. Choices b, c, and d also repeats five and fifth.
  27. e.   Roughing It is the title of Twain's book, and should be set off by commas before and after.
  28. d.   Choice d is correctly punctuated with a semicolon between two independent clauses, and there is no shift in person. Choices a, b, and e are incorrect because the sentence shifts from the first person (We) to the second person (you). Choice c uses a semicolon when no punctuation is necessary.
  29. b.   In this sentence contrary to, which means a viewpoint that is opposite to or in conflict with another viewpoint, is used correctly. In choice a, in is inappropriately used with opposite. Similarly, choices c, d, and e do not use standard phrasing.
  30. a.   Correct as is. Choices b and e are wordy while choices c and d are awkward.
  31. c.   Choices a, b, and e are awkward and wordy. Choice d is unclear and ambiguous; the use of the preposition to distorts the meaning of the sentence.
  32. d.   This choice is clear, logical, and unambiguous and does not use extraneous words. Choice a is redundant: until the time when. Choice b is also redundant (since when) and uses extraneous words. The redundancy in choice c is to kill and stop. In choice e, the phrase up to when is awkward, and the word its has an unclear referent.
  33. a.   When constructing sentences, unnecessary shifts in verb tenses should be avoided. Choice a is best because all three verbs in the sentence indicate that the action occurred in the past (had been covering, became, and was called). In choice b, there is a shift to the present (becomes). Choice c begins in the present (is covering, becomes), then shifts to the past (called). Choice d makes two tense shifts, and choice e shifts once, from present to past tense.
  34. d.   This is the only choice that is both grammatically and logically correct. Choice a has a shift in construction; there are two subjects that mean the same thing (Donald Trump and he). Choice b has a modifier problem; the sentence implies that Donald Trump built a billion-dollar empire because he was the son of a real estate developer. Choice c, though constructed differently, results in the same faulty logic. Choice e creates faulty subordination.
  35. e.   The correct punctuation between two independent clauses is a semicolon. Choice a is wrong because it creates a comma splice. Choice c creates a sentence fragment. Choices b and d create faulty subordination.
  36. b.   The original sentence begins with a dependent clause, and only choice b corrects that error.
  37. e.   This is the correct choice because the sentence is complete, logical, and unambiguous.
  38. b.   This is the only choice that is logical and unambiguous.
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