Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces: Rapid Review for AP Chemistry
For a more thorough review, refer to these concepts:
- Structures and Intermolecular Forces for AP Chemistry
- The Liquid State for AP Chemistry
- The Solid State for AP Chemistry
- Phase Diagrams and Phase Changes for AP Chemistry
- The state of matter in which a substance exists depends on the competition between the kinetic energy of the particles (proportional to temperature) and the strength of the intermolecular forces between the particles.
- The melting point is the temperature at which a substance goes from the solid to the liquid state and is the same as the freezing point.
- The boiling point is the temperature at which a substance goes from the liquid to the gaseous state. This takes place within the body of the liquid, unlike evaporation which takes place only at the surface of the liquid.
- Sublimation is the conversion of a solid to a gas without ever having become a liquid. Deposition is the reverse process.
- Intermolecular forces are the attractive or repulsive forces between atoms, molecules, or ions due to full or partial charges.
- Phase changes are changes of state.
- Ion–dipole intermolecular forces occur between ions and polar molecules.
- Dipole–dipole intermolecular forces occur between polar molecules.
- Hydrogen bonds are intermolecular forces between dipoles in which there is a hydrogen atom attached to an N, O, or F atom.
- Ion-induced dipole intermolecular forces occur between an ion and a nonpolar molecule.
- London (dispersion) forces are intermolecular forces between nonpolar molecules.
- Liquids possess surface tension (liquids behaving as if they had a thin "skin" on their surface, due to unequal attraction of molecules at the surface of the liquid), viscosity (resistance to flow), and capillary action (flow up a small tube).
- Amorphous solids have very little structure in the solid state.
- Crystalline solids have a great deal of structure in the solid state.
- The crystal lattice of a crystalline solid is the regular ordering of the unit cells.
- Cubic unit cells include the simple body-centered, and face-centered.
- Know the five types of crystalline solid: atomic, molecular, ionic, metallic, and network.
- A phase diagram is a graph displaying the relationship of a substance's states of matter to temperature and pressure.
- The critical point on a phase diagram is that point beyond which the gaseous and liquid states merge. No matter how much pressure is applied or how much the gas is cooled, the substance cannot be condensed into a liquid.
- The triple point is the combination of temperature and pressure on a phase diagram where all three states of matter exist in equilibrium.
- Phase changes can be related to the strength of intermolecular forces.
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