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Solutions and Colligative Properties: Review Questions for AP Chemistry

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Feb 2, 2011

Review the following concepts if necessary:

Problems

You have 25 minutes to answer the following questions. You will be expected to do your calculations without a calculator. You may use the periodic table at the back of the book. For each question, circle the letter of your choice.

  1. A solution is prepared by dissolving 1.25 g of an unknown substance in 100.0 mL of water. Which procedure from the following list could be used to determine whether the solute is an electrolyte?
    1. Measure the specific heat of the solution.
    2. Measure the volume of the solution.
    3. Measure the freezing point of the solution.
    4. Determine the specific heat of the solution.
    5. Determine the volume of the solute.
  2. What is the final K+ concentration in a solution made by mixing 300.0 mL of 1.0 M KNO3 and 700.0 mL of 2.0 M K3PO4?
    1. 1.5 M
    2. 5.0 M
    3. 3.0 M
    4. 2.0 M
    5. 4.5 M
  3. Strontium sulfate (SrSO4) will precipitate when a solution of sodium sulfate is added to a strontium nitrate solution. What will be the strontium ion, Sr2+, concentration remaining after 30.0 mL of 0.10 M Na2SO4 solution are added to 70.0 mL of 0.20 M Sr(NO3)2 solution?
    1. 0.14 M
    2. 0.15 M
    3. 0.11 M
    4. 0.20 M
    5. 0.030 M
  4. Which of the following is a strong electrolyte when it is mixed with water?
    1. HNO2
    2. KNO3
    3. C2H5OH
    4. CH3COOH
    5. NH3
  5. A solution with a total chloride ion, Cl, concentration of 1.0 M is needed. Initially, the solution is 0.30 M in MgCl2. How many moles of solid CaCl2 must be added to 400 mL of the MgCl2 solution to achieve the desired concentration of chloride ion?
    1. 0.10
    2. 0.080
    3. 0.20
    4. 0.15
    5. 0.16
  6. Assuming the volumes are additive, what is the final H+(aq) concentration produced by adding 30.0 mL of 0.50 M HNO3 to 70.0 mL of 1.00 M HCl?
    1. 0.75 M
    2. 1.50 M
    3. 1.25 M
    4. 0.85 M
    5. 0.43 M
  7. The molality of a 1.0-molar ethyl alcohol solution may be determined if which of the following is supplied?
    1. density of the solution
    2. van't Hoff factor for ethyl alcohol
    3. temperature of the solution
    4. volume of the solution
    5. solubility of ethyl alcohol
  8. A solution of chloroform, CHCl3, in carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, is nearly ideal. The vapor pressure of chloroform is 170 mm Hg at 20°C, and the vapor pressure of carbon tetrachloride is 87 mm Hg at this temperature. What is the mole fraction of carbon tetrachloride in the vapor over an equimolar solution of these two liquids?
    1. 0.25
    2. 0.87
    3. 0.66
    4. 0.50
    5. 0.34
  9. To prepare 3.0 L of a 0.20-molar K3PO4 solution (molecular weight 212), a student should follow which of the following procedures?
    1. The student should weigh 42 g of solute and add sufficient water to obtain a final volume of 3.0 L.
    2. The student should weigh 42 g of solute and add 3.0 Kg of water.
    3. The student should weigh 130 g of solute and add sufficient water to obtain a final volume of 3.0 L.
    4. The student should weigh 42 g of solute and add 3.0 L of water.
    5. The student should weigh 130 g of solute and add 3.0 L of water.
  10. A 5.2 molal aqueous solution of methyl alcohol, CH3OH, is supplied. What is the mole fraction of methyl alcohol in this solution?
    1. 0.10
    2. 0.19
    3. 0.086
    4. 0.050
    5. 0.094
  11. Choose the aqueous solution with the highest boiling point.
    1. 0.10 M HI
    2. 0.10 M (NH4)3PO4
    3. 0.20 M C2H5OH
    4. 0.10 M NH4Cl
    5. 0.10 M NaI
  12. How many grams of MgSO4 (molar mass 120.4 g/mol) are in 100.0 mL of a 5.0-molar solution?
    1. 600 g
    2. 5.0 g
    3. 12 g
    4. 60.0 g
    5. 120 g
  13. How many milliliters of concentrated nitric acid (16.0-molar HNO3) are needed to prepare 0.500 L of 6.0-molar HNO3?
    1. 0.19 mL
    2. 250 mL
    3. 375 mL
    4. 190 mL
    5. 100 mL
  14.  
    1. the molal freezing-point constant, Kf , of the solvent
    2. the freezing point of the pure solvent and the freezing point of the solution
  15. When using the freezing-point depression method of determining the molar mass of a nonelectrolyte, what information is needed in addition to the above?

    1. the mass of the solute
    2. the volume of the solvent and the mass of the solute
    3. the mass of the solvent and the boiling point of the solvent
    4. the mass of the solvent and the mass of the solute
    5. no additional information is needed
  16. A student has a solution with a mole fraction of 0.20 of chloroform (molecular mass 119.4) in carbon tetrachloride (molecular mass 153.8). What is the molality of chloroform in the solution?
    1. 1.7 m
    2. 0.17 m
    3. 0.20 m
    4. 1.3 m
    5. 1.20 m
  17. A solution is 10 percent urea by mass. Which item(s) from the following list are needed to calculate the molarity of this solution?
    1. the density of the solution
    2. the density of the solvent
    3. the molecular weight of urea
    1. I and III
    2. I only
    3. II only
    4. III only
    5. I and II
  18. Which of the following aqueous solutions would have the greatest freezing-point depression?
    1. 0.10 m (NH4)2SO4
    2. 0.10 m MnSO4
    3. 0.10 m NaF
    4. 0.10 m KCI
    5. 0.10 m CH3OH
  19. Which of the following aqueous solutions would have the greatest conductivity?
    1. 0.2 M NaOH
    2. 0.2 M RbCl
    3. 0.2 M NH4NO3
    4. 0.2 M HNO2
    5. 0.2 M K3PO4
  20. An aqueous KNO3 solution is cooled from 75°C to 15°C. Which statement from the following list is true?
    1. The molarity of the solution does not change.
    2. The molality of the solution decreases.
    3. The density of the solution does not change.
    4. The molality of the solution does not change.
    5. The mole fraction of the solute increases.
  21. How many milliliters of water must be added to 50.0 mL of 10.0 M HNO3 to prepare 4.00 M HNO3?
    1. 50.0 mL
    2. 125 mL
    3. 500 mL
    4. 250 mL
    5. 75.0 mL
  22. Pick the pair of substances that will most likely obey Raoult's law.
    1. CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH(l) and C5H12(l)
    2. C5H12(l) and H2O(l)
    3. CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH(l) and H2O(l)
    4. H3PO4(l) and H2O(l)
    5. C5Hl2(l) and C6H14(l)
  23. The best method to isolate pure MgSO4 from an aqueous solution of MgSO4 is
    1. Evaporate the solution to dryness.
    2. Titrate the solution.
    3. Electrolyze the solution.
    4. Use paper chromatography.
    5. Filter the solution.
  24. Pick the conditions that would yield the highest concentration of N2(g) in water.
    1. partial pressure of gas = 1.0 atm; temperature of water = 25°C
    2. partial pressure of gas = 0.50 atm; temperature of water = 55°C
    3. partial pressure of gas = 2.0 atm; temperature of water = 25°C
    4. partial pressure of gas = 2.0 atm; temperature of water = 85°C
    5. partial pressure of gas = 1.0 atm; temperature of water = 85°C
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