Structure of Early Civilizations Review Questions for AP World History
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- The Egyptian civilization was similar to the Sumerian civilization
- in its reliance on natural defense barriers.
- in its system of social stratification.
- in its political structure.
- in the extent to which its culture was diffused.
- in the nature of the flood pattern of its major rivers.
- The earliest civilizations in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres were similar in
- their location at similar latitudes.
- their technological knowledge.
- their reliance on the flooding of major rivers in their midst.
- their practice of polytheism.
- the extent of their trade contacts with neighboring peoples.
- The Indus valley civilization
- relied heavily on communal planning.
- is best studied through its written records.
- was isolated from other river valley civilizations because of surrounding mountains.
- declined after the arrival of Aryan invaders.
- shared similar flood control concerns with the Egyptians.
- The early civilization with the least developed technology was
- The Maya civilization
- was a byproduct of cultural diffusion from earlier Mesoamerican societies.
- had a stratified society.
- developed a city-state political structure.
- all of the above.
- none of the above.
- Shang China
- developed numerous artistic works even though they did not know the use of metals.
- left no decipherable written records.
- was prevented by natural barriers from trading with other early civilizations.
- contributed to the development of central government in China.
- was less urbanized than the Nile valley civilization.
- Early societies of South America
- were unified under a central government.
- relied on community cooperation to construct irrigation systems.
- developed societies that had no knowledge of metals.
- traded widely with regions to their north.
- built upon Mesoamerican cultural traditions.
- Results of cultural diffusion among early civilizations included
- the invention of the wheel.
- the legend of Quetzalcóatl.
- the cultivation of potatoes.
- Harappan sewage systems.
- none of the above.
Answers and Explanations
- B—Both Egypt and Sumer had societies comprising various social classes of the elite, peasants, and slaves. Whereas Egypt enjoyed natural defense barriers, Sumer did not (A). Sumer was governed by kings of local city-states, whereas the Egyptian pharaoh was the supreme ruler (C). Although the Egyptians largely developed themselves culturally, Sumerian culture was widely diffused by later conquerors (D). The Nile River flooding was predictable, whereas that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers was not (E).
- D—All the earliest agricultural civilizations worshipped many gods. They were located in different latitudes (A) and enjoyed different levels of technology (B). The civilizations of the Western Hemisphere did not rely on the flooding of rivers (C). Trade in China and Andean civilizations and societies was limited (E).
- A—The presence of granaries and well-planned street grids in the cities of the Harappan civilization of the Indus valley is evidence of considerable community planning. The writing of the Harappan civilization is so far undecipherable (B). Indus valley peoples bypassed mountain barriers and traded by sea (C). Their civilization had already declined markedly before the arrival of the Aryans (D). Flood patterns of the Indus were unpredictable, whereas those of Egypt were predictable (E).
- A—Early Mesoamerican civilizations did not even have the knowledge of the wheel, whereas the other civilizations mentioned did not have to rely only on human muscle for construction or irrigation projects.
- D—The Mayans adopted their calendar, the cultivation of maize, the legend of Quetzalcóatl, and other features of earlier Mesoamerican civilizations (A). They had a society composed of several social classes (B) and organized their government around several local city-states (C).
- D—The Shang brought the settlements of northern China under the control of a centralized government. Shang dynasty artisans worked extensively in bronze (A). The Shang were the first Chinese dynasty to leave written records (B). Although natural barriers lessened trade, the Shang carried out some trade with South Asia and Southwest Asia (C). A number of cities arose in China under the Shang (E).
- B—The Mochica cooperated to construct irrigation systems. Early South American societies were organized into local governments (A) and knew the use of copper (C). Trade with the north was limited because of geographical barriers (D), preventing South American societies from building upon the traditions of Mesoamerica (E).
- B—The legend of Quetzalcóatl diffused throughout early Mesoamerican cultures and civilizations. The invention of the wheel (A) was an independent contribution of the Sumerians. The cultivation of potatoes (C) was limited to the early Andean societies and civilizations. Harappan sewage systems (D) were unique to the people of the Indus valley civilization.
From 5 Steps to a 5 AP World History. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
Next Study Guide: Rise of Classical Civilizations Review for AP World History
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