Systems of Slavery Review Questions for AP World History
By Peggy J. Martin — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Apr 25, 2014
The study guide for these review questions can be found at:
- African kingdoms in the period from 1450 to 1750
- featured monarchs who ruled without advisors.
- frequently enslaved their own people.
- like the Chinese, were not interested in European trade goods.
- ruled without the use of military units.
- were involved in the slave trade before the arrival of Europeans.
- Compared to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, that of eastern Africa
- involved only European nations.
- acquired slaves from coastal areas only.
- did not involve central Africa.
- became a model for European slave systems.
- also involved the plantation system.
- Within Africa, the slave trade
- increased African dependence on European nations.
- decreased the value of women slaves.
- had little effect on central African kingdoms.
- promoted unity among African kingdoms.
- concentrated on western Africa.
- Historians searching for the earliest models of European plantation slavery would need to study
- plantation society on Indian Ocean islands.
- the history of the Madeira and Canary Islands.
- sugar plantations in the West Indies.
- cotton plantations in British North America.
- slavery among the Dutch in Cape Colony.
- The African slave trade
- had no ties to Middle Eastern trade.
- was frequently the result of African rivalries.
- was abolished by the Dutch in southern Africa.
- was limited to the Atlantic Ocean.
- replaced trade in gold and ivory.
- The trans-Atlantic slave trade
- produced average mortality rates of over 50 percent along the Middle Passage.
- carried the majority of slaves to North America.
- increased after the establishment of sugar plantations.
- was separate from triangular trade patterns.
- carried more women than men.
- When the Portuguese first became involved in the slave trade
- they were uninterested in Christianizing African peoples.
- they were interested primarily in gold and spices.
- they were amazed at the poverty of African kingdoms.
- they created the African slave trade.
- they bypassed trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa.
- Sugar plantations
- were initially founded in the Caribbean.
- required fewer slaves than the cotton and rice fields of North America.
- were the ultimate destination of the first Portuguese slaves.
- especially valued slaves from western Africa.
- competed with triangular trade.
Answers and Explanations
- E—Trans-Saharan and Middle Eastern trade routes existed before 1450. African monarchs tended to rule with councils of advisors (A). Africans seldom enslaved their own people, usually enslaving prisoners of war or captives from raiding parties on neighboring tribes or kingdoms (B). African traders became dependent on European goods they received in exchange for slaves (C). Armies were important to expanding African kingdoms (D).
- E—Both the trans-Atlantic and eastern African trade routes took slaves to European-run plantations. Eastern African slave trade involved Africans, Indians, and Arabs also (A). It involved both coastal and island areas (B). Slaves were captured from central Africa before being taken to the coast (C). European plantation systems became models for those of other cultural groups (D).
- A—Guns purchased from European nations were used by Africans to acquire more slaves within Africa. Within Africa, slave women were valued as household servants (B). Central African kingdoms were often the source of slaves for trade across the oceans and within Africa (C). The slave trade increased African rivalries (D) and involved most parts of Africa (E).
- B—The earliest models of European plantations were established on the Madeira and Canary Islands. Plantations in the Indian Ocean (A), the West Indies (C), British North America (D), and Cape Colony (E) occurred later.
- B—African rulers often raided neighboring villages in order to secure the wealth and power of slaves. Indian Ocean trade took slaves from East Africa to the Middle East (A). The Dutch enslaved Africans in Cape Colony (C). The Indian Ocean was another site of active slave trade (D). The slave trade took place along with the trade in gold and ivory (E).
- C—The sugar plantations of the Caribbean and Brazil were the primary destination of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Middle Passage mortality rates averaged about 20 percent (A). Only about 5 percent of slaves crossing the Atlantic were sent to North America (B). It was part of the triangular trade (D) and involved more men than women (E).
- B—Portugal was interested in the gold and spice trade before it was concerned with the slave trade. The Portuguese were interested in bringing Christianity to Africa (A). They found wealthy and powerful African kingdoms (C), and tapped into already existing slave routes (D). Portugal increased trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa (E).
- D—Western Africans were already accomplished farmers. The first sugar plantations were founded off the coast of Africa (A). They required the most slaves of any crop because of the rigors of sugar cultivation (B). The first Portuguese slaves were destined for the households of Europe (C). Sugar plantations were part of the triangular trade (E).
From 5 Steps to a 5 AP World History. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
Next Study Guide: Cultural and Intellectual Changes Review for AP World History
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