Testing and Individual Differences Rapid Review for AP Psychology (page 2)
More in-depth study guides for these concepts can be found at:
- Testing and Individual Differences for AP Psychology
- Ethics and Standards in Testing for AP Psychology
- Intelligence and Intelligence Testing for AP Psychology
- Heredity, Environment and Intelligence for AP Psychology
Tests are used to make decisions.
- Psychometricians (measurement psychologists)—focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data; measure mental traits, abilities, and processes.
Standardization and norms:
- Constructs—hypothetical abstractions related to behavior and defined by groups of objects or events.
- Standardization—two-part test development procedure: first establishes test norms from the test results of the large representative sample then assures that the test is both administered and scored uniformly for all test takers.
- Norms—standards used to compare scores of test takers.
Reliability and validity:
- Reliability—consistency of results over time (repeatability); methods of measurement include test-retest, split half, alternate form.
- Validity—test measures what it is supposed to measure; methods of measurement include face, content, predictive, construct.
Types of tests:
- Performance tests—test taker knows how to respond to questions and tries to succeed.
- Speed tests—large number of relatively easy items in limited test period;
- Power tests—items of varying difficulty with adequate test period.
- Aptitude tests—assess person's capacity to learn, predict future performance (example: SAT).
- Achievement tests—assess what a person has already learned (example: AP test).
- Group tests—test many people at one time; test taker works alone; cheaper; more objective.
- Individualized tests—interaction of one examiner with one test taker; expensive; subjective grading.
Ethics and standards in testing:
- APA and other guidelines detail standards to promote best interests of client, guard against misuse, respect client's right to know results, and safeguard dignity. Informed consent needed. Confidentiality guaranteed.
- Culture-relevant tests—test skills and knowledge related to cultural experiences of the test takers.
Intelligence and intelligence testing:
- Reification—construct treated as a concrete, tangible object.
- Intelligence—aggregate or global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.
- Stanford-Binet intelligence test—constructed by Lewis Terman—was an individual IQ test with IQ calculated using ratio formula: Mental age/chronological age × 100. Now, IQ based on deviation from mean, for children and for adults. Five ability areas assessed both verbally and nonverbally.
- Wechsler intelligence tests—Three age-based individual IQ tests: WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); two scores—verbal and performance; difference between two helpful for identifying learning disabilities; deviation IQ score—100 mean/mode/median, 15 pt SD; good for extremes of gifted and mentally retarded or cognitively disabled.
Degrees of Mental Retardation:
- Mild—IQ 50–70; can self-care, hold job, may live independently, form social relationships.
- Moderate—IQ 35–49; may self-care, hold menial job, function in group home.
- Severe—IQ 20–34; limited language and limited self-care, lack social skills, require care.
- Profound—IQ under 20; require complete custodial care.
- Factor analysis—a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of items by determining which variables have a high degree of correlation.
- Charles Spearman used factor analysis to identify g: general factor underlying all intelligence, also s: less important specialized abilities.
- Thurstone's primary mental abilities—seven distinct intelligence factors.
- John Horn and Raymond Cattell identified two intelligence factors:
- Fluid intelligence—those cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning that tend to diminish with adult aging.
- Crystallized intelligence—learned knowledge and skills, such as vocabulary, which tend to increase with age.
- Multiple intelligences—Howard Gardner's theory that people process information differently and intelligence is composed of many different factors, including at least eight intelligences: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
- Emotional intelligence—Peter Salovey and John Mayer's construct defined as the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions; similar to Gardner's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences.
- Triarchic theory of intelligence—Robert Sternberg's idea of three separate and testable intelligences: analytical (facts), practical ("street smarts"), and creative (seeing multiple solutions).
Heredity/environment and intelligence:
- Both nature and nurture contribute to intelligence.
- Cultural-familial retardation—retardation attributed to sociocultural deprivation.
- In twin studies, correlation of IQs of identical twins was much higher than fraternal twins or other siblings (favoring nature).
- Flynn effect—steady increase in performance on IQ tests over the last 80 years, possibly resulting from better nutrition, educational opportunities, and health care (favoring nurture)
- Within-group differences—range of scores for variables being measured for a group of individuals.
- Between-group differences—usually the difference between means of two groups of individuals for a common variable.
- Stereotype threat—Claude Steele's concept that anxiety influences achievement of members of a group concerned that their performance on a test will confirm a negative stereotype. This may account for lower scores of blacks on intelligence tests or girls on math tests.
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