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Testing and Individual Differences Review Questions for AP Psychology (page 2)

By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Mar 4, 2011

Answers and Explanations

  1. B—Aptitude tests measure our potential for learning whereas achievement tests measure what we have already learned.
  2. A—For a standardization sample to be useful it must fairly represent all the types of people who will be taking it at a future date.
  3. B—A split-half reliability measure correlates the scores on one half of the questions on a test with the other half. If they are consistent, then the test results are reliable. The odd–even question format is only one way to test for split-half reliability.
  4. B—Group tests are more economical and easier to administer to a larger group of people in less time with less need for a professional examiner and complicated grading criteria. Most results are computer generated.
  5. C—Spearman's g is a general ability that fuels many s, or special talents. His two-factor model does tend to support the genetic basis of intelligence, but g does not mean this.
  6. A—Sternberg argued that traditional IQ tests are limited to measuring the analytical abilities of students—mostly verbal, mathematical, and logical reasoning. He believes that both practical and creative intelligence are overlooked by these tests, but should be measured because of their importance in both adapting to the existing environment and shaping new ones.
  7. D—The formula for determining the Stanford-Binet IQ score is MA/CA × 100. This formula shows that Freddie's intelligence quotient would be 12/10 × 100 or 120.
  8. E—In comparison to white students, black students average IQ scores 10 to 15 points lower.
  9. B—Questions at either extreme are thrown out because these fail to show individual differences, which is the whole point of standardized tests.
  10. C—Many older individuals like Barika show this decline in fluid intelligence, possibly because they get fewer opportunities to use their abstract reasoning. The speed at which they can answer these types of questions decreases as well. Their overall crystallized intelligence, or information that they have gathered over a lifetime, is often unimpaired.
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