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# Hyperbolic Function Facts Help

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By — McGraw-Hill Professional
Updated on Aug 30, 2011

## Hyperbolic Function Facts—Pythagorean Theorem

Here’s another flurry of facts, this time involving the hyperbolic functions. You are not expected to memorize any of these, but you should be able to use them in calculations if you are given numbers to “plug in.”

### Pythagorean Theorem For Sinh And Cosh

The difference between the squares of the hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine of a variable is always equal to either 1 or –1. The following formulas hold for all real numbers x :

sinh 2 x = cosh 2 x = –1

cosh 2 x – sinh 2 x = 1

### Pythagorean Theorem For Csch And Coth

The difference between the squares of the hyperbolic cotangent and hyperbolic cosecant of a variable is always equal to either 1 or –1. The following formulas hold for all real numbers x except 0:

csch 2 x – coth 2 x = –1

coth 2 x – csch 2 x = 1

### Pythagorean Theorem For Sech And Tanh

The sum of the squares of the hyperbolic secant and hyperbolic tangent of a variable is always equal to 1. The following formula holds for all real numbers x :

sech 2 x + tanh 2 x = 1

## Negative Variables

### Hyperbolic Sine Of Negative Variable

The hyperbolic sine of the negative of a variable is equal to the negative of the hyperbolic sine of the variable. The following formula holds for all real numbers x:

sinh – x = –sinh x

### Hyperbolic Cosine Of Negative Variable

The hyperbolic cosine of the negative of a variable is equal to the hyperbolic cosine of the variable. The following formula holds for all real numbers x :

cosh – x = cosh x

### Hyperbolic Tangent Of Negative Variable

The hyperbolic tangent of the negative of a variable is equal to the negative of the hyperbolic tangent of the variable. The following formula holds for all real numbers x :

tanh – x = –tanh x

### Hyperbolic Cosecant Of Negative Variable

The hyperbolic cosecant of the negative of a variable is equal to the negative of the hyperbolic cosecant of the variable. The following formula holds for all real numbers x except 0:

csch – x = –csch x

### Hyperbolic Secant Of Negative Variable

The hyperbolic secant of the negative of a variable is equal to the hyperbolic secant of the variable. The following formula holds for all real numbers x :

sech – x = sech x

### Hyperbolic Cotangent Of Negative Variable

The hyperbolic cotangent of the negative of a variable is equal to the negative of the hyperbolic cotangent of the variable. The following formula holds for all real numbers x except 0:

coth – x = –coth x

## Double Values

### Hyperbolic Sine Of Double Value

The hyperbolic sine of twice any given variable is equal to twice the hyperbolic sine of the original variable times the hyperbolic cosine of the original variable. The following formula holds for all real numbers x :

sinh 2 x = 2 sinh x cosh x

### Hyperbolic Cosine Of Double Value

The hyperbolic cosine of twice any given variable can be found according to any of the following three formulas for all real numbers x :

cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x

cosh 2 x = 1 + 2 sinh 2 x

cosh 2 x = 2 cosh 2 x – 1

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