Reconstruction and the Civil War
|1863||Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction|
|1864||Freedmen’s Bureau established|
President Lincoln assassinated
Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Thirteenth Amendment ratified
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
Andrew Johnson impeached; acquitted on all charges
Fourteenth Amendment ratified
Ulysses S. Grant elected president
|1870||Fifteenth Amendment ratified|
Reconstruction After the Civil War
The Civil War ended in 1865, but the war over African-American civil and political rights was only beginning. The first battle of this long war was called Reconstruction. A Republican Congress was eager to reform the old Confederacy along the lines of the North, where all men had the right to vote and no one owned another person as property. However, two obstacles stood in the way. The first was President Andrew Johnson. The second was the old guard of the Confederacy.
Johnson had supported the Union during the war, but he despised African Americans and did his best to block congressional attempts to extend their rights. For their part, southern whites were determined to restore society to exactly what it had been before the war; they were forced to accept the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery illegal, but they passed many laws curtailing the rights and privileges of African-American citizens.
Republicans were able to do something about the first obstacle. Over President Johnson’s veto, Congress passed a series of laws that made it possible for African Americans to vote, to hold political office, and to enjoy other important civil rights. However, no Congress ever convened would be able to legislate away deep-seated prejudice, bitterness in defeat, and racism. Using terrorist tactics of violence and intimidation, the South managed to defeat Reconstruction reforms and push African Americans back down to the lowest rung on the social and economic ladder. It would take a century to enforce the three Civil Rights amendments that were passed between 1865 and 1870.
Practice questions for these concepts can be found at:
Today on Education.com
- Coats and Car Seats: A Lethal Combination?
- Kindergarten Sight Words List
- Child Development Theories
- Signs Your Child Might Have Asperger's Syndrome
- 10 Fun Activities for Children with Autism
- Why is Play Important? Social and Emotional Development, Physical Development, Creative Development
- The Homework Debate
- Social Cognitive Theory
- First Grade Sight Words List
- GED Math Practice Test 1