Austria: From Kingdom to Empire Austria was a kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire in 1780, when Joseph II Hapsburg assumed full power. Before that date he had ruled jointly with Empress Maria Theresa, his mother. Both Maria Theresa and Joseph were ...
The Russian Empire If Austrian monarchs were conservative, Russian monarchs were far more so. The Russian government had been autocratic from the time the nation first drove the Tatars from power, and it would remain that way in the nineteenth century despite the ...
Review the following study guides if necessary: Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires