Louis XIV In 1643, a five-year-old child was crowned Louis XIV of France. He would reign until his death in 1715. Known to the world as the Sun King, Louis was perhaps the most absolute of the absolute European monarchs of the seventeenth century. He chose the sun ...
Monarch of England England had already experienced a century of absolute monarchy under the Tudors. Although Henry VII had taken the English throne by right of conquest, he and his descendants believed in the divine right of kings as much as any hereditary ...
Peter the Great of Russia Peter Romanov was born in 1672. When Peter was ten, he and his brother Ivan were named dual monarchs of Russia; their older sister Sophia would serve as regent until the boys grew old enough to rule. In 1689, the nobles ousted Sophia from ...
Holy Roman Empire: Austria and Prussia During the age of monarchy, the Holy Roman Empire as an entity began to pass into history. Its various states began to take shape as independent nation- states, of which the two strongest were Austria and Prussia.
Poland Poland had been a strong nation-state during the late Middle Ages; a dynastic marriage in 1386 between Princess Jadwiga of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania united the two as the Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania. However, the dynasty died out in 1572, at ...