Spain North African Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula in the early 700s and controlled much of the territory for more than seven hundred years. It was only toward the end of the Middle Ages that Christian armies began to drive them from power. During the ...
Spain in the 1500s Queen Isabel died in 1504; although Juana inherited the throne of Castile, she was not mentally or emotionally stable enough to perform her duties. Knowing of her daughter’s condition, Isabel had arranged for Ferdinand to serve as regent ...
Queen Elizabeth Elizabeth I had a thoroughly pragmatic attitude toward religion and, in fact, toward almost every affair of state. Elizabeth was hardly likely to profess or practice Catholicism, since the Church had excommunicated her father for marrying her ...