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Students will be able to quickly multiply two- and three-digit numbers using multiplication strategies.
- Pose an example multiplication problem on the board, such as 7 x 29.
- Ask students to name strategies for multiplying with their group.
- After 1–2 minutes, have students share out and make a list of responses on the board.
- Provide a bank of multiplication strategies for students to choose from as they discuss ways to solve the sample problem in their groups.
- Give students a sentence frame to support the discussion: "To multiply 7 x 29, I would use the ____ strategy because..."
Explicit Instruction/Teacher modeling(15 minutes)
- Review each of the following strategies for multiplying by modeling how to solve these equations: partial products, mental math, lattice, and traditional algorithm:
- Partial products: 5 x 64 = 5 x 60 + 5 x 4 = 320.
- Mental math: For 10 x 22 you could think aloud: "I know that when I multiply any number by 10, I just have to add the 0 to the end so the answer is 220."
- Lattice: set up the lattice squares for 3 x 76.
- Traditional algorithm: 4 x 57.
- Have students repeat the steps as you introduce them for each of the strategies.
- Allow students access to bilingual resources, such as online dictionaries or bilingual glossaries, for them to utilize as you teach the strategies.
- Define any unfamiliar words in student-friendly terms in students' home languages (L1) or in English (L2). Words to include are "multiplication," "strategy," "lattice," "partial," "product," and "algorithm."
- Have students share their background knowledge, even if incomplete, for all of the math strategies demonstrated.
Guided Practice(20 minutes)
- Distribute the Multiplication Strategies Flip Books.
- Instruct students to fold these in half and cut on the dotted line to create the flip book.
- Review each strategy with additional sample problems.
- Invite students to the board to solve the problems.
- Students at their seats should follow along and record steps in their flip books.
- Assign students a supportive partner for the flip-book activity. Encourage them to discuss the problems they record in the book and the steps of each strategy.
- Have students rephrase and restate the strategy processes as they come up to the board to work on an example.
Independent working time(20 minutes)
- Review directions for multiplication musical chairs:
- Students will use scratch paper and clipboards or whiteboards and markers to rotate around the chairs.
- Give each student a starting number.
- Students will walk around while music plays and stop at the nearest chair when the music stops.
- Once they stop, they will look at the number on the index card on the chair and multiply their starting number by that number.
- The teacher will walk around to observe students' strategies and mathematical accuracy during this portion.
- The teacher can choose to identify "winners," or students with the largest and smallest products if desired.
- After the round, students use their products as their new starting number for the next round.
- Repeat for five to ten more rounds or as time allows.
- Allow students to solve the multiplication problems in the musical chair game with a partner.
- Tell students to verbally share their multiplication strategy with a partner after they solve it.
- Give a lower starting number for multiplication musical chairs. Give these students the Football Multiplication worksheet for their assessment.
- Give a higher starting number for multiplication musical chairs. Give these students the 3 Digit Multiplication worksheet for their assessment.
- Distribute various multiplication worksheets to your students.
- Have students work independently to complete the worksheet as their assessment using their preferred multiplication strategy.
- Instruct students to label each problem with the name of the strategy they used.
- Give students fewer problems to work on as their formative assessment.
- Let students work with a partner and ensure they share their strategies verbally.
- Ask students to restate the directions of the assessment to a partner.
- Have students work in a small teacher-led group for the formative assessment piece.
Review and closing(5 minutes)
- Have students write in math journals or on scratch paper their response to the following question: Which multiplication strategy works best for you? Why?
- Give students sentence frames to support the discussion:
- "My favorite multiplication strategy is ____ because..." "I like the ____ strategy because it is..." "I do not like any of the strategies because..." and "I'm still not sure of my favorite strategy because..."
- Have students share their sentences with a partner before discussing in a whole group.