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Students will be able to multiply whole numbers of up to four digits by one-digit and two-digit whole numbers, using strategies based on place value.
- Begin this lesson by reviewing place value. Write a five-digit number on the board. Have students come to the board and identify each number's place value.
- Tell students that today they are going to use what they know about place values to help them calculate multi-digit numbers.
- Write a two-digit by one-digit multiplication problem on the board.
- Have students raise their hands and work on solving the problems to show you if they have previous experience with multiplying multi-digit numbers like the one on the board.
- Explain to them that it is very doable as long as they know the value of the two single numbers, place value, and a strategy called regrouping.
- Provide student-friendly definitions in students' home language (L1) and English (L2), for the following terms: "place value," "digit," "regrouping," "multiply." Include an image or example for each word.
- Give students a chance to solve the two-digit by one-digit multiplication problem with a partner before sharing their solution with the whole group.
Explicit Instruction/Teacher modeling(15 minutes)
- Remind students of basic multiplication facts by using the Multiply! worksheet as a quick review.
- Review the answers by using the answer key.
- Offer students suggestions for this quick assignment by reviewing the patterns found in each row.
- Use the table to work on problems in which double digit numbers are multiplied by single digit numbers using problems from the Multiplication with Regrouping or Mammoth Multiplication Problems worksheets.
- Next use problems from the Double Digit Multiplication worksheet to use place value when multiplying multi-digit numbers by two-digit numbers.
- Let students work on the Multiply! worksheet with a supportive partner. Encourage students to talk about their thinking and any products they disagree on.
- Write out and refer to the steps for multiplying multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm. Have students repeat the steps as you do each one.
Guided Practice(20 minutes)
- Have students find a partner.
- Pass out the Math-Go-Round (Hard) game and scratch paper for completing their calculations.
- Read the instructions for the game to students. Set a time limit for each calculation or for the entire game if you would like.
- Ask students if they have questions.
- Have students work in pairs to complete the calculations.
- Use the last 2–4 minutes to discuss any challenges.
- Place students with a partner who is able to support the beginning EL student (e.g., a partner who speaks the same home language).
- Have students restate or rephrase the directions to the activity in their own words.
- Provide sentence starters to help students discuss any challenges they encountered during the guided practice, such as: "This problem was difficult because..." or "I had trouble with the part when I had to..."
Independent working time(20 minutes)
- Pass out the Math-Go-Round (Expert) game and scratch paper for completing their calculations to students.
- Tell students that they will work alone to complete the game board.
- Make this a timed assignment if you would like.
- Remind students to use place value when calculating multi-digit numbers by two-digit numbers.
- If students get stuck, advise them to go to the next calculation.
- Allow time to review the challenging problems (as determined by the students) and answers after this assignment.
- Allow students to do their work with a helpful partner.
- Give students access to the Vocabulary Cards so that they may use correct terminology when asking a question or discussing a problem with the teacher or a classmate.
- Let students work in a small teacher-led group, and model how to solve a couple of the two-digit by three-digit multiplication problems.
- Have students describe their calculations as they are doing them. Correct any language errors and celebrate accurate description.
- Students who need extra support could create their own more simplistic problems and answer them.
- Advanced students could create a children's book with step-by-step instructions for multiplying multi-digit numbers by one and two-digit numbers. They could also complete the Multiplying Multi-Digit Numbers worksheet which requires them to multiply several six-digit numbers by two-digit numbers and even multiply by three-digit numbers.
- Use the Multiplication Mischief worksheet to assess students' understanding of the lesson.
- Remind students that they must use place value to answer each question.
- Give students a word/phrase bank with pertinent math vocabulary, definitions, and examples which will help them complete the assessment.
- Have students work on the assessment worksheet with a partner.
- Assign students fewer multiplication problems, and then have them verbally describe the steps they take to solve each one.
Review and closing(5 minutes)
- Review place value and the multiplication chart.
- Write an equation on the board and have students work the problem out with you on the whiteboard.
- Ask students the following question and have them discuss with a partner, before sharing out with the whole group: "Why is it important to understand place value in multiplication?"
- Let students talk to a partner about why it is important to understand place value when multiplying.
- Provide a sentence stem to support students as they discuss: "I think it is important to understand place value when multiplying because..."