Behavioral Autonomy—progression from dependence to self-care and self-direction

  • Choice-making skills: select from among alternatives based on preferences
  • Decision-making skills: weigh adequacy of various solutions
  • Problem-solving skills: respond in order to function effectively in one's environment
  • Goal-setting/attainment skills: develop goals and perform necessary actions
  • Independence, risk-taking, and safety skills: perform tasks without help

Self-Regulated Behavior—decide to plan, act, evaluate, and revise plans as needed

  • Goal-setting/attainment skills: develop goals and perform necessary actions
  • Self-observation, evaluation, and reinforcement skills: access, observe, and record what you discover
  • Self-instruction skills: self-talk to provide prompts for problem solving
  • Self-advocacy skills: speak up to defend oneself, a cause, or a person

Psychological Empowerment—internal locus of control, self-efficacy, outcome expectations

  • Internal locus of control: belief that one has control over critical outcomes
  • Positive attributions of efficacy/outcome expectancy: behavior leads to expectations

Self-Realization—accurate knowledge of individual strengths and needs, along with the ability to act in a manner that capitalizes on that knowledge

  • Self-awareness: basic understanding of one's strengths, needs, and abilities
  • Self-evaluation: ability to use/apply personal insights to real-world settings