Science project

Make Your Own Fizzy Lemonade

Difficulty of Project


Cost (Approximate Cost of completing the project)

Less than $10

Safety Issues


Material Availability


Approximate Time Required to Complete the Project

Less than 2 hours for the experiment(s), additional time if making a large quantity of drink for a presentation.


To understand the general concept of an acid and a base. To understand and explore the concept of a chemical reaction and an acid-base reaction.  


  • Drinking glass
  • 1 teaspoon of baking soda
  • 1 lemon
  • Water
  • Sugar (to add to taste)
  • Measuring cup(s)
  • Optional: Orange, grapefruit, lime or other citrus fruit 


A chemical reaction occurs when two substances are combined to form a new substance. When an acid (pH<7) and a base (pH>7) are combined this is called an acid-base reaction. Carbon dioxide is released during an acid-base reaction. Carbon dioxide is an odorless, colorless gas. When it forms within a liquid, such as in this experiment, it creates bubbles through a process known as carbonation. The strength of this reaction, and the quantity of bubbles produced, varies depending on the ratio of acid to base in the reaction and the strength (of pH) of each substance. 

Research Questions

  1. Which of your ingredients is acidic?
  2. Which of your ingredients is basic?
  3. Did you observe any chemical reactions during your experiment? If yes, what happened?
  4. How did the taste of your mixture change throughout your experiment?
  5. At what point did you notice carbon dioxide forming?
  6. If you repeated the experiment with a second type of fruit, did you notice any differences in when the carbon dioxide formed or the quantity of bubbles produced?  
Terms, Concepts and Questions to Start Background Research

Acid – Any compound with a pH of less than 7.0 (a hydrogen donor in chemical reactions) and can taste sour.

Base – Any compound with a pH of greater than 7.0 (a hydrogen acceptor in chemical reactions) and can feel slippery to the touch.

Chemical reaction – The process when one or more substance changes into a different substance.

Acid-Base reaction – The process when an acidic substance and a basic substance combine to form a new substance(s).

Carbon Dioxide – An odorless, colorless gas made up of carbon and oxygen.  

Experimental Procedure 

  1. Gather materials over waterproof surface
  2. Slice lemon into quarters and squeeze juice into a measuring cup. Note the quantity of juice your lemon produces.
  3. Pour the lemon juice into the drinking glass. Add the same quantity of water to the drinking glass.
  4. Mix well and taste. Note any observations regarding the taste and appearance of the drink.
  5. While stirring add 1 teaspoon of baking soda to the drinking glass.
  6. Mix well and taste. Note any observations regarding the taste and appearance of the drink.
  7. Add sugar to sweeten if desired.
  8. To present this project, make a large quantity of your fizzy drink and hand out samples!
  9. Optional: Repeat steps 1-8 with a second type of citrus fruit and notice any differences in the new chemical reaction. 


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