No Child Left Behind Act: The Next Generation
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- A Guide to the No Child Left Behind Act
- No Child Left Behind Act
- No Child Left Behind: A Parent's Guide - Introduction and Overview
- Questions and Answers on No Child Left Behind
- No Child Left Behind: Testing, Reporting, and Accountability
- School Restructuring Options Under No Child Left Behind
In 2001, President George W. Bush enacted the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 to reform and revitalize the education system. NCLB enjoyed support from both Democrats and Republicans and was implemented through the nation’s public schools. The main criterion for education reform under NCLB was two-part: setting high standards and establishing measurable goals by which schools (and the states they belonged to) would be assessed for future funding. There is no set national standard for achievement. These new standards would be established by the states autonomously.
In its efforts to measure the performance of each school and the individual achievements, NCLB has met both success and challenges. Some of the most visible results are:
- Standardized tests are conducted at all schools receiving federal funding
- Teachers, administrators are held accountable for their performance based on the achievement of the students
- Improved test scores for reading and math (The Department of Education points to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) results, released in July 2005, showing improved student achievement in reading and math: (2006) No Child Left Behind Act Is Working, Department of Education
- Criticism that teachers are teaching to the test instead of being able to focus on comprehension and a broader non-Math and English-focused curriculum
- The focus on math and reading takes away from the other subjects such as, art, history
- Standards are punitive for children who learn differently, leaving disadvantaged children behind
- No concerted effort has been made to provide the support both students and teachers need to educate to the highest possible degree.
Education experts have long called for reforms to the education system. Among them is Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University. Her most recent book The Flat World and Education: How America's Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future looks at the course of education in the U.S. and gives readers a view into where it is going and where it should go. She recently served in President Obama's education policy transition team.
Dr. Darling-Hammond’s assessment of the gap between U.S. school students and those from other countries in mathematics and graduating percentage (75% in the U.S. versus 95% elsewhere) puts the focus on some issues:
“Most high-achieving countries not only provide high-quality universal preschool and healthcare for children; they also fund their schools centrally and equally, with additional funds going to the neediest schools. Furthermore, they support a better-prepared teaching force—funding competitive salaries and high-quality teacher education, mentoring and ongoing professional development for all teachers. NCLB's answer to the problem of preparing teachers for the increasingly challenging job they face has been to call for alternative routes that often reduce training for the teachers of the poor.
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