The author often has a stance, or point of view, that is, an opinion. Sometimes it is easy to discern and sometimes it is subtle. For example, Daniel Quinn in his fascinating novel, Ishmael, has the view that humans have forgotten our roots, and by roots he means the roots of our hunter-gatherer origins. Those that remember this he calls "Givers" and most of those who have forgotten he calls, "Takers." Check it out.