Yes different colors can absorb heat differently. You can tell that darker colors absorb more heat than lighter colors because the light reflects off of the light colors.
When a substance appears of a certain color, it is actually absorbing all the wave lengths of the light spectrum falling on it and reflecting only one wave length peculiar to that color. So, the different colors absorb different wave lengths and hence, different amounts of heat energy.
Different colors do absorb heat differently because dark colors reflect light from lighter colors and different colors absorb the waved length that is different and absorb heat differently. Darker colors like black and navy attract heat different and it could also be made by different fabrics. Lighter colors like yellow and white absorb less heat and is made out of different fabrics.