Proficiency tests must be handwritten yet there are no standards for Handwriting or even hand printing. How is this justified? For example, Handwriting used to be a third grade standard in WCSD and, I believe, State. When was that eliminated? Why?
You have asked a series of very good questions, and while it is impossible to know your specific state situation, here is a suggestion.
Contact the Department of Education in your state capital and ask to speak (or the email address) of the person in charge of Curriculum and/or the person in charge of Accountability/Testing. Ask these questions to either one of these people and you should be able to get answers from these state experts.