Special Education consideration is conducted through a process of legal procedures. Parents, caregivers, teachers, administrators, etc. can initiate this process. It is best to do so in writing with copies made and saved of all communications.
There is a lengthy set of steps to see if your child qualifies for special education or other ancillary help to traditional classroom education.
I am an inclusion teacher, so I am able to answer this for you as I've gone through this process with many of my students. Their teacher needs to refer them to I&RS which gives the teacher a list of interventions to try with the student. That process takes 6 weeks. If the interventions are working for the student the process goes no further and they check in with the I&RS team every 6 weeks. If the interventions aren't working, the student is then referred to the child study team.
The parents and teacher(s) will meet with the child study team to discuss the child and their needs. If they decide that there is enough evidence to test the child, then they will move forward. If that is the case, the child study team has 90 days to test the child for IQ, family history, etc. After that 90 day period the teacher(s), parents, and child study team discuss information they gathered from testing. If a deficiency is found, an IEP (Individual Education Plan) is set up for the child and they are open to many special education options. Some things could include being pulled out of class during certain subjects with a smaller group of students. Or it could mean physical therapy, speech therapy, or simply being placed in an inclusion (two-teacher) classroom. It means their work could be modified and/or shortened depending on their disability.
Now if they are denied testing from the initial meeting with the child study team, the student is referred back to I&RS and they have to wait another 6 week period until they are able to refer them back to the child study team. Unfortunately this process can be continual throughout the year.
Also, if they are tested by the child study team and nothing is found as a disability they are also referred back to I&RS and again go through the 6 week process.