There is a myth out there that scientists follow something called "the scientific method." Not so. Scientists use a multiplicity of methods, not just one formula. Biologists, for example, will use naturalistic studies (e.g. animal observations in ethology), experiments (e.g. genetics), artificial selection (e.g. botany), carbon dating (e.g. paleontology), genome mapping, and many other methods. Oftentimes people think of experimenting at "the" method of scientists, but astronomers don't do them because what they study is out of this world.