Boys and Guns (page 2)
But these games may be useful to get boys learning, a new UK report on the early years of learning suggests. It says that boys often watch TV and games and act out what they see males in them do. The report says “Adults can find this type of play particularly challenging and have a natural instinct to stop it”. The Report is called Confident, Capable and Creative: Supporting Boys’ Achievements, and comes from the UK Department for Children, Schools and Families. The UK Children’s Minister, Beverley Hughes, called it “ a commonsense approach to the fact that many children, and perhaps particularly many boys, like boisterous, physical activity”. Her clever wording encompasses many debates. It will create many more.
Despite many academic articles, a gap between boys and girls’ achievement remains. Among low achievers in the UK, boys outnumber girls by 20%. A gender gap in achievement between boys and girls has been discussed in Australia since the O’Doherty Report was released in New South Wales in 1994 . Last year the subject rose to prominence in the USA and is still being hotly debated. Some announce there is a boy crisis; others deride such an idea. Unfortunately the result is that we get buried in semantics.
There will be many implications from the Report. For instance, could female staff be too ready to condemn boyish play? And are men more likely to permit it? If there are boy- friendly approaches to learning, and thus teaching, do we have enough men in teaching? Professor Andrew Martin at Oxford University told me that although top quality is the most important thing we need in a good teacher, boys prefer to raise certain issues with a trusted older male, not always a father. And males often tolerate more active and boyish learning, Sebastian Kraemer argues. The difficulty of getting suitable males into teaching has been bewailed around the world, but no workable solution has been found.
*Dr Peter West is a well-known academic who provides workshops on boys’ learning. His website is www.boyslearning.com.au. He can be reaced by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Boys, lack of emotional expression and high activity
By the time a boy is born the pattern seems set. Developmental disorders such as specific reading delay,10 hyperactivity,11 autism and related disorders, clumsiness, stammering, and Tourette's syndrome12occur three to four times more often in boys than in girls, although girls, when they have such a disorder, may be more severely affected.13 Conduct and oppositional disorders are at least twice as common in boys.14 Genetic factors are known to play a part, varying from low heritability in conduct disorder to high in autism,15 but why are they all commoner in boys? None of these conditions is sex linked in the classical sense. But Skuse et al propose that the X chromosome does carry some of the burden of the social and cognitive deficits that are common to many (but not all) of these disorders.16Coeducation has exposed another difference that was less evident (even though paradoxically more pronounced26) in the past: that girls are better than boys at most academic subjects. Results of the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination, taken at age 16 in England, have only relatively recently been collected on a nationwide scale, but they show a considerable gap between the sexes in scholastic achievement: 42.8% boys compared with 53.4% girls get grade C or above at GCSE,27 and in lower social classes the gap is even greater.28 Boys mature more slowly than girls and later tend to catch up with girls academically. Disruptive ("boyish") behaviour may be less tolerated in modern schools than it was in the past.29 Males, meanwhile, tend to have superior skills in mathematics and other non-verbal tasks. Even at the age of 2 boys do better than girls at building a bridge with toy bricks.30 In general, males are better at spatial and navigational skills, such as throwing, map reading,31 chess, and architecture, though these are not invariable advantages. Spatial ability, for example, is better in female than male Inuit.32 Yet males everywhere have consistently maintained a superior ability to match figures rotated at different angles.33 Girls have better literary skills and are more aware of and explicit about their feelings, while boys tend to clam up, especially when their emotions are high, and just feel uncomfortable and awkward without knowing why. The much studied defect "alexithymia"lack of an emotional vocabulary is much commoner in boys.34
Kraemer, “The fragile Male”, British Medical Journal, 2000 bmj.com
Messing about in boats
"There is nothing -- absolutely nothing -- half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats. In or out of 'em, it doesn't matter. Nothing seems really to matter, that's the charm of it. Whether you get away, or whether you don't; whether you arrive at your destination or whether you reach somewhere else, or whether you never get anywhere at all, you're always busy, and you never do anything in particular; and when you've done it there's always something else to do, and you can do it if you like, but you'd much better not."
Reprinted with the permission of Peter West.
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- Theories of Learning
- What Makes a School Effective?
- Child Development Theories