Enriching Children's Out-of-School Time (page 3)

By — Educational Resource Information Center (U.S. Department of Education)
Updated on Mar 8, 2010


Out-of-school time programs provide opportunities for young adolescents to learn skills that are not usually acquired in school, such as athletic and artistic performance skills. Programs may also extend and enrich academic skills by enabling participation in a debate club or computer club. In some cases, these experiences lead to lifelong interests or careers. But perhaps more importantly, the sense of competence and affiliation that can flourish during out-of-school time provides the best reason for enrichment programs (Miller, 1998).

For More Information

Brooks, P. E., Mojia, C. M., & Land, R. E. (1995). Longitudinal study of LA's BEST after school education and enrichment program, 1992-94. Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California.

Carns, A., Carns, M., Wooten, H., Jones, L., Raffield, P., & Heitkamp, J. (1995). Extracurricular activities: Are they beneficial? Texas Counseling Association Journal, 23(2), 37-45.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.

Halpern, R., Spielberger, J., & Robb, S. (1998). Making the Most of Out-of-School Time, executive summary: Interim findings from an evaluation conducted by Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago. New York: DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund.

Heath, S. B., & Roach, A. A. (1998). The arts in the nonschool hours. Menlo Park, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Miller, B. (1998). Border zones: Out of school time and young adolescents. Unpublished paper. Wellesley, MA: National Institute on Out-of-School Time.

O'Connor, S., & McGuire, K. (1998). Homework assistance and out-of-school time: Filling the need, finding the balance. Wellesley, MA: National Institute on Out-of-School Time.

Posner, J. K., & Vandell, D. L. (1994). Low-income children's after-school care. Are there beneficial effects of after-school programs? Child Development, 65(2), 440-456. EJ 483 924.

Roman, J. (Ed.). (1998). The NSACA standards for quality school-age care. Boston, MA: National School-Age Care Alliance. (Also available:

Steinberg, J., Riley, D., & Todd, C. (1993). Preventing problem behaviors and raising academic performance in the nation's youth: The impacts of 71 school-age child care programs supported by the CES Youth-at-Risk Initiative. Urbana: University of Illinois and the University of Wisconsin Center for Action on the Family.

U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice. (1998). Safe and smart: Making after-school hours work for kids. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Partnership for Family Involvement in Education. ED 419 303. (Also available:

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