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National Standards for Grade 4 - Mathematics (page 4)

National Assessment Governing Board
Updated on Mar 14, 2011

Data Analysis and Probability

By grade 4, students should be expected to apply their understanding of number and quantity to pose questions that can be answered by collecting appropriate data. They should be expected to organize data in a table or a plot and summarize the essential features of center, spread, and shape both verbally and with simple summary statistics. Simple comparisons can be made between two related data sets, but more formal inference based on randomness should come later. The basic concept of chance and statistical reasoning can be built into meaningful contexts, though, such as, “If I draw two names from among those of the students in the room, am I likely to get two girls?” Such problems can be addressed through simulation.

 Grade 4 1) Data representation Pictographs, bar graphs, circle graphs, line graphs, line plots, tables, and tallies. a) Read or interpret a single set of data. b) For a given set of data, complete a graph (limits of time make it difficult to construct graphs completely). c) Solve problems by estimating and computing within a single set of data. 2) Characteristics of data sets a) Given a set of data or a graph, describe the distribution of the data using median, range, or mode. b) Compare two sets of related data. 3) Probability a) Use informal probabilistic thinking to describe chance events (i.e., likely and unlikely, certain and impossible). b) Determine a simple probability from a context that includes a picture. c) List all possible outcomes of a given situation or event. d) Represent the probability of a given outcome using a picture or other graphic.

Algebra

By grade 4, students are expected to be able to recognize and extend simple numeric patterns as one foundation for a later understanding of function. They can begin to understand the meaning of equality and some of its properties, as well as the idea of an unknown quantity as a precursor to the concept of variable.

 Grade 4 1) Patterns, relations, and functions a) Recognize, describe, or extend numerical patterns. b) Given a pattern or sequence, construct or explain a rule that can generate the terms of the pattern or sequence. c) Given a description, extend or find a missing term in a pattern or sequence. d) Create a different representation of a pattern or sequence given a verbal description. e) Recognize or describe a relationship in which quantities change proportionally. 2) Algebraic representations a) Translate between the different forms of representations (sym­bolic, numerical, verbal, or pictorial) of whole number re­lationships (such as from a written description to an equation or from a function table to a written description). b) Graph or interpret points with whole number or letter coordinates on grids or in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane. c) Verify a conclusion using algebraic properties. 3) Variables, expressions, and operations a) Use letters and symbols to represent an unknown quantity in a simple mathematical expression. b) Express simple mathematical relationships using number sentences. 4) Equations and inequalities a) Find the value of the unknown in a whole number sentence.